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Learn It : DOS Command

ASSOCDisplays or modifies file extension associations.
ATSchedules commands and programs to run on a computer.
ATTRIBDisplays or changes file attributes.
BREAKSets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
CACLSDisplays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.
CALLCalls one batch program from another.
CDDisplays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHCPDisplays or sets the active code page number.
CHDIRDisplays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHKDSKChecks a disk and displays a status report.
CHKNTFSDisplays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.
CLSClears the screen.
CMDStarts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter.
COLORSets the default console foreground and background colors.
COMPCompares the contents of two files or sets of files.
COMPACTDisplays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.
CONVERTConverts FAT volumes to NTFS. You cannot convert the
COPYCopies one or more files to another location.
DATEDisplays or sets the date.
DELDeletes one or more files.
DIRDisplays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.
DISKCOMPCompares the contents of two floppy disks.
DISKCOPYCopies the contents of one floppy disk to another.
DOSKEYEdits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and creates macros.
ECHODisplays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.
ENDLOCALEnds localization of environment changes in a batch file.
ERASEDeletes one or more files.
EXITQuits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter).
FCCompares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences
FINDSearches for a text string in a file or files.
FINDSTRSearches for strings in files.
FORRuns a specified command for each file in a set of files.
FORMATFormats a disk for use with Windows.
FTYPEDisplays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
GOTODirects the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line in a
GRAFTABLEnables Windows to display an extended character set in graphics
HELPProvides Help information for Windows commands.
IFPerforms conditional processing in batch programs.
LABELCreates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
MDCreates a directory.
MKDIRCreates a directory.
MODEConfigures a system device.
MOREDisplays output one screen at a time.
MOVEMoves one or more files from one directory to another directory.
PATHDisplays or sets a search path for executable files.
PAUSESuspends processing of a batch file and displays a message.
POPDRestores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD.
PRINTPrints a text file.
PROMPTChanges the Windows command prompt.
PUSHDSaves the current directory then changes it.
RDRemoves a directory.
RECOVERRecovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.
REMRecords comments (remarks) in batch files or CONFIG.SYS.
RENRenames a file or files.
RENAMERenames a file or files.
REPLACEReplaces files.
RMDIRRemoves a directory.
SETDisplays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables.
SETLOCALBegins localization of environment changes in a batch file.
SHIFTShifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch files.
SORTSorts input.
STARTStarts a separate window to run a specified program or command.
SUBSTAssociates a path with a drive letter.
TIMEDisplays or sets the system time.
TITLESets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.
TREEGraphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path.
TYPEDisplays the contents of a text file.
VERDisplays the Windows version.
VERIFYTells Windows whether to verify that your files are written
VOLDisplays a disk volume label and serial number.
XCOPYCopies files and directory trees.
APPEND 
ARP 
ATMADM 
AUDITUSR 
BLASTCLN 
CSCRIPT 
DEBUG 
DEFRAG 
DIANTZ 
DISKPART 
DISKPERF 
EDLIN 
EXE2BIN 
EXPAND 
FINGER 
FLTMC 
FORCEDOS 
FSUTIL 
FTP 
HOSTNAME 
IPCONFIG 
JAVA 
LODCTR 
LOGMAN 
LPQ 
LPR 
MAKECAB 
MEM 
MOUNTVOL 
MRINFO 
MSG 
NBTSTAT 
NET 
NET1 
NETSH 
NETSTAT 
NLSFUNC 
NSLOOKUP 
PATHPING 
PENTNT 
PING 
PING6 
POWERCFG 
PROXYCFG 
QAPPSRV 
QPROCESS 
QWINSTA 
RASAUTOU 
RASDIAL 
RCP 
REG 
REXEC 
ROUTE 
RSH 
RSM 
RUNAS 
RWINSTA 
SC 
SETVER 
SHADOW 
SHUTDOWN 
SMBINST 
TELNET 
TFTP 
TRACERT 
TRACERT6 
TSCON 
TSDISCON 
TSKILL 
TSSHUTDN 
TZCHANGE 
UNLODCTR 
VERIFIER 
VSSADMIN 
W32TM 



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ASSOC

Displays or modifies file extension associations

ASSOC [.ext[=[fileType]]]

  .ext      Specifies the file extension to associate the file type with
  fileType  Specifies the file type to associate with the file extension

Type ASSOC without parameters to display the current file associations.
If ASSOC is invoked with just a file extension, it displays the current
file association for that file extension.  Specify nothing for the file
type and the command will delete the association for the file extension.
 

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AT

The AT command schedules commands and programs to run on a computer at      
a specified time and date. The Schedule service must be running to use      
the AT command.
                                                           
AT [\\computername] [ [id] [/DELETE] | /DELETE [/YES]]                    
AT [\\computername] time [/INTERACTIVE]
    [ /EVERY:date[,...] | /NEXT:date[,...]] "command"

\\computername     Specifies a remote computer. Commands are scheduled on the
                   local computer if this parameter is omitted.             
id                 Is an identification number assigned to a scheduled      
                   command.                                                 
/delete            Cancels a scheduled command. If id is omitted, all the
                   scheduled commands on the computer are canceled.
/yes               Used with cancel all jobs command when no further
                   confirmation is desired.
time               Specifies the time when command is to run.
/interactive       Allows the job to interact with the desktop of the user   
                   who is logged on at the time the job runs.
/every:date[,...]  Runs the command on each specified day(s) of the week or
                   month. If date is omitted, the current day of the month
                   is assumed.                                              
/next:date[,...]   Runs the specified command on the next occurrence of the
                   day (for example, next Thursday).  If date is omitted, the
                   current day of the month is assumed.
"command"          Is the Windows NT command, or batch program to be run.

 

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ATTRIB

Displays or changes file attributes.

ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A ] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [drive:][path][filename]
       [/S [/D]]

  +   Sets an attribute.
  -   Clears an attribute.
  R   Read-only file attribute.
  A   Archive file attribute.
  S   System file attribute.
  H   Hidden file attribute.
  [drive:][path][filename]
      Specifies a file or files for attrib to process.
  /S  Processes matching files in the current folder
      and all subfolders.
  /D  Processes folders as well.

 

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BREAK

Sets or Clears Extended CTRL+C checking on DOS system

This is present for Compatibility with DOS systems. It has no effect
under Windows XP.

If Command Extensions are enabled, and running on the Windows XP
platform, then the BREAK command will enter a hard coded breakpoint
if being debugged by a debugger.
 

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CACLS

Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files



CACLS filename [/T] [/E] [/C] [/G user:perm] [/R user [...]]

               [/P user:perm [...]] [/D user [...]]

   filename      Displays ACLs.

   /T            Changes ACLs of specified files in

                 the current directory and all subdirectories.

   /E            Edit ACL instead of replacing it.

   /C            Continue on access denied errors.

   /G user:perm  Grant specified user access rights.

                 Perm can be: R  Read

                              W  Write

                              C  Change (write)

                              F  Full control

   /R user	 Revoke specified user's access rights (only valid with /E).

   /P user:perm  Replace specified user's access rights.

                 Perm can be: N  None

                              R  Read

                              W  Write

                              C  Change (write)

                              F  Full control

   /D user       Deny specified user access.

Wildcards can be used to specify more that one file in a command.

You can specify more than one user in a command.



Abbreviations:

   CI - Container Inherit.

        The ACE will be inherited by directories.

   OI - Object Inherit.

        The ACE will be inherited by files.

   IO - Inherit Only.

        The ACE does not apply to the current file/directory.

 

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CALL

Calls one batch program from another.

CALL [drive:][path]filename [batch-parameters]

  batch-parameters   Specifies any command-line information required by the
                     batch program.

If Command Extensions are enabled CALL changes as follows:

CALL command now accepts labels as the target of the CALL.  The syntax
is:

    CALL :label arguments

A new batch file context is created with the specified arguments and
control is passed to the statement after the label specified.  You must
"exit" twice by reaching the end of the batch script file twice.  The
first time you read the end, control will return to just after the CALL
statement.  The second time will exit the batch script.  Type GOTO /?
for a description of the GOTO :EOF extension that will allow you to
"return" from a batch script.

In addition, expansion of batch script argument references (%0, %1,
etc.) have been changed as follows:


    %* in a batch script refers to all the arguments (e.g. %1 %2 %3
        %4 %5 ...)

    Substitution of batch parameters (%n) has been enhanced.  You can
    now use the following optional syntax:

        %~1         - expands %1 removing any surrounding quotes (")
        %~f1        - expands %1 to a fully qualified path name
        %~d1        - expands %1 to a drive letter only
        %~p1        - expands %1 to a path only
        %~n1        - expands %1 to a file name only
        %~x1        - expands %1 to a file extension only
        %~s1        - expanded path contains short names only
        %~a1        - expands %1 to file attributes
        %~t1        - expands %1 to date/time of file
        %~z1        - expands %1 to size of file
        %~$PATH:1   - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable and expands %1 to the fully
                       qualified name of the first one found.  If the
                       environment variable name is not defined or the
                       file is not found by the search, then this
                       modifier expands to the empty string

    The modifiers can be combined to get compound results:

        %~dp1       - expands %1 to a drive letter and path only
        %~nx1       - expands %1 to a file name and extension only
        %~dp$PATH:1 - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable for %1 and expands to the
                       drive letter and path of the first one found.
        %~ftza1     - expands %1 to a DIR like output line

    In the above examples %1 and PATH can be replaced by other
    valid values.  The %~ syntax is terminated by a valid argument
    number.  The %~ modifiers may not be used with %*
 

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CD

Displays the name of or changes the current directory.

CHDIR [/D] [drive:][path]
CHDIR [..]
CD [/D] [drive:][path]
CD [..]

  ..   Specifies that you want to change to the parent directory.

Type CD drive: to display the current directory in the specified drive.
Type CD without parameters to display the current drive and directory.

Use the /D switch to change current drive in addition to changing current
directory for a drive.

If Command Extensions are enabled CHDIR changes as follows:

The current directory string is converted to use the same case as
the on disk names.  So CD C:\TEMP would actually set the current
directory to C:\Temp if that is the case on disk.

CHDIR command does not treat spaces as delimiters, so it is possible to
CD into a subdirectory name that contains a space without surrounding
the name with quotes.  For example:

    cd \winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu

is the same as:

    cd "\winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu"

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.
 

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CHCP

Displays or sets the active code page number.

CHCP [nnn]

  nnn   Specifies a code page number.

Type CHCP without a parameter to display the active code page number.
 

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CHDIR

Displays the name of or changes the current directory.

CHDIR [/D] [drive:][path]
CHDIR [..]
CD [/D] [drive:][path]
CD [..]

  ..   Specifies that you want to change to the parent directory.

Type CD drive: to display the current directory in the specified drive.
Type CD without parameters to display the current drive and directory.

Use the /D switch to change current drive in addition to changing current
directory for a drive.

If Command Extensions are enabled CHDIR changes as follows:

The current directory string is converted to use the same case as
the on disk names.  So CD C:\TEMP would actually set the current
directory to C:\Temp if that is the case on disk.

CHDIR command does not treat spaces as delimiters, so it is possible to
CD into a subdirectory name that contains a space without surrounding
the name with quotes.  For example:

    cd \winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu

is the same as:

    cd "\winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu"

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.
 

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CHKDSK

Checks a disk and displays a status report.


CHKDSK [volume[[path]filename]]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/C] [/L[:size]]


  volume          Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
                  mount point, or volume name.
  filename        FAT/FAT32 only: Specifies the files to check for fragmentation.
  /F              Fixes errors on the disk.
  /V              On FAT/FAT32: Displays the full path and name of every file
                  on the disk.
                  On NTFS: Displays cleanup messages if any.
  /R              Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information
                  (implies /F).
  /L:size         NTFS only:  Changes the log file size to the specified number
                  of kilobytes.  If size is not specified, displays current
                  size.
  /X              Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary.
                  All opened handles to the volume would then be invalid
                  (implies /F).
  /I              NTFS only: Performs a less vigorous check of index entries.
  /C              NTFS only: Skips checking of cycles within the folder
                  structure.

The /I or /C switch reduces the amount of time required to run Chkdsk by
skipping certain checks of the volume.
 

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CHKNTFS

Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.

CHKNTFS volume [...]
CHKNTFS /D
CHKNTFS /T[:time]
CHKNTFS /X volume [...]
CHKNTFS /C volume [...]

  volume         Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
                 mount point, or volume name.
  /D             Restores the machine to the default behavior; all drives are
                 checked at boot time and chkdsk is run on those that are
                 dirty.
  /T:time        Changes the AUTOCHK initiation countdown time to the
                 specified amount of time in seconds.  If time is not
                 specified, displays the current setting.
  /X             Excludes a drive from the default boot-time check.  Excluded
                 drives are not accumulated between command invocations.
  /C             Schedules a drive to be checked at boot time; chkdsk will run
                 if the drive is dirty.

If no switches are specified, CHKNTFS will display if the specified drive is
dirty or scheduled to be checked on next reboot.
 

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CLS

Clears the screen.

CLS
 

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CMD

Starts a new instance of the Windows XP command interpreter

CMD [/A | /U] [/Q] [/D] [/E:ON | /E:OFF] [/F:ON | /F:OFF] [/V:ON | /V:OFF]
    [[/S] [/C | /K] string]

/C      Carries out the command specified by string and then terminates
/K      Carries out the command specified by string but remains
/S      Modifies the treatment of string after /C or /K (see below)
/Q      Turns echo off
/D      Disable execution of AutoRun commands from registry (see below)
/A      Causes the output of internal commands to a pipe or file to be ANSI
/U      Causes the output of internal commands to a pipe or file to be
        Unicode
/T:fg   Sets the foreground/background colors (see COLOR /? for more info)
/E:ON   Enable command extensions (see below)
/E:OFF  Disable command extensions (see below)
/F:ON   Enable file and directory name completion characters (see below)
/F:OFF  Disable file and directory name completion characters (see below)
/V:ON   Enable delayed environment variable expansion using ! as the
        delimiter. For example, /V:ON would allow !var! to expand the
        variable var at execution time.  The var syntax expands variables
        at input time, which is quite a different thing when inside of a FOR
        loop.
/V:OFF  Disable delayed environment expansion.

Note that multiple commands separated by the command separator '&&'
are accepted for string if surrounded by quotes.  Also, for compatibility
reasons, /X is the same as /E:ON, /Y is the same as /E:OFF and /R is the
same as /C.  Any other switches are ignored.

If /C or /K is specified, then the remainder of the command line after
the switch is processed as a command line, where the following logic is
used to process quote (") characters:

    1.  If all of the following conditions are met, then quote characters
        on the command line are preserved:

        - no /S switch
        - exactly two quote characters
        - no special characters between the two quote characters,
          where special is one of: &<>()@^|
        - there are one or more whitespace characters between the
          the two quote characters
        - the string between the two quote characters is the name
          of an executable file.

    2.  Otherwise, old behavior is to see if the first character is
        a quote character and if so, strip the leading character and
        remove the last quote character on the command line, preserving
        any text after the last quote character.

If /D was NOT specified on the command line, then when CMD.EXE starts, it
looks for the following REG_SZ/REG_EXPAND_SZ registry variables, and if
either or both are present, they are executed first.

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\AutoRun

        and/or

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\AutoRun

Command Extensions are enabled by default.  You may also disable
extensions for a particular invocation by using the /E:OFF switch.  You
can enable or disable extensions for all invocations of CMD.EXE on a
machine and/or user logon session by setting either or both of the
following REG_DWORD values in the registry using REGEDT32.EXE:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\EnableExtensions

        and/or

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\EnableExtensions

to either 0x1 or 0x0.  The user specific setting takes precedence over
the machine setting.  The command line switches take precedence over the
registry settings.

The command extensions involve changes and/or additions to the following
commands:

    DEL or ERASE
    COLOR
    CD or CHDIR
    MD or MKDIR
    PROMPT
    PUSHD
    POPD
    SET
    SETLOCAL
    ENDLOCAL
    IF
    FOR
    CALL
    SHIFT
    GOTO
    START (also includes changes to external command invocation)
    ASSOC
    FTYPE

To get specific details, type commandname /? to view the specifics.

Delayed environment variable expansion is NOT enabled by default.  You
can enable or disable delayed environment variable expansion for a
particular invocation of CMD.EXE with the /V:ON or /V:OFF switch.  You
can enable or disable completion for all invocations of CMD.EXE on a
machine and/or user logon session by setting either or both of the
following REG_DWORD values in the registry using REGEDT32.EXE:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\DelayedExpansion

        and/or

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\DelayedExpansion

to either 0x1 or 0x0.  The user specific setting takes precedence over
the machine setting.  The command line switches take precedence over the
registry settings.

If delayed environment variable expansion is enabled, then the exclamation
character can be used to substitute the value of an environment variable
at execution time.

File and Directory name completion is NOT enabled by default.  You can
enable or disable file name completion for a particular invocation of
CMD.EXE with the /F:ON or /F:OFF switch.  You can enable or disable
completion for all invocations of CMD.EXE on a machine and/or user logon
session by setting either or both of the following REG_DWORD values in
the registry using REGEDT32.EXE:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\CompletionChar
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\PathCompletionChar

        and/or

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\CompletionChar
    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\PathCompletionChar

with the hex value of a control character to use for a particular
function (e.g.  0x4 is Ctrl-D and 0x6 is Ctrl-F).  The user specific
settings take precedence over the machine settings.  The command line
switches take precedence over the registry settings.

If completion is enabled with the /F:ON switch, the two control
characters used are Ctrl-D for directory name completion and Ctrl-F for
file name completion.  To disable a particular completion character in
the registry, use the value for space (0x20) as it is not a valid
control character.

Completion is invoked when you type either of the two control
characters.  The completion function takes the path string to the left
of the cursor appends a wild card character to it if none is already
present and builds up a list of paths that match.  It then displays the
first matching path.  If no paths match, it just beeps and leaves the
display alone.  Thereafter, repeated pressing of the same control
character will cycle through the list of matching paths.  Pressing the
Shift key with the control character will move through the list
backwards.  If you edit the line in any way and press the control
character again, the saved list of matching paths is discarded and a new
one generated.  The same occurs if you switch between file and directory
name completion.  The only difference between the two control characters
is the file completion character matches both file and directory names,
while the directory completion character only matches directory names.
If file completion is used on any of the built in directory commands
(CD, MD or RD) then directory completion is assumed.

The completion code deals correctly with file names that contain spaces
or other special characters by placing quotes around the matching path.
Also, if you back up, then invoke completion from within a line, the
text to the right of the cursor at the point completion was invoked is
discarded.

The special characters that require quotes are:
<space>
&amp;()[]{}^=;!&#39;+,`~
 

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COLOR

Sets the default console foreground and background colors.

COLOR [attr]

  attr        Specifies color attribute of console output

Color attributes are specified by TWO hex digits -- the first
corresponds to the background; the second the foreground.  Each digit
can be any of the following values:

    0 = Black       8 = Gray
    1 = Blue        9 = Light Blue
    2 = Green       A = Light Green
    3 = Aqua        B = Light Aqua
    4 = Red         C = Light Red
    5 = Purple      D = Light Purple
    6 = Yellow      E = Light Yellow
    7 = White       F = Bright White

If no argument is given, this command restores the color to what it was
when CMD.EXE started.  This value either comes from the current console
window, the /T command line switch or from the DefaultColor registry
value.

The COLOR command sets ERRORLEVEL to 1 if an attempt is made to execute
the COLOR command with a foreground and background color that are the
same.

Example: &quot;COLOR fc&quot; produces light red on bright white
 

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COMP

Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.

COMP [data1] [data2] [/D] [/A] [/L] [/N=number] [/C] [/OFF[LINE]]

  data1      Specifies location and name(s) of first file(s) to compare.
  data2      Specifies location and name(s) of second files to compare.
  /D         Displays differences in decimal format.
  /A         Displays differences in ASCII characters.
  /L         Displays line numbers for differences.
  /N=number  Compares only the first specified number of lines in each file.
  /C         Disregards case of ASCII letters when comparing files.
  /OFF[LINE] Do not skip files with offline attribute set.

To compare sets of files, use wildcards in data1 and data2 parameters.
 

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COMPACT

Displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.

COMPACT [/C | /U] [/S[:dir]] [/A] [/I] [/F] [/Q] [filename [...]]

  /C        Compresses the specified files.  Directories will be marked
            so that files added afterward will be compressed.
  /U        Uncompresses the specified files.  Directories will be marked
            so that files added afterward will not be compressed.
  /S        Performs the specified operation on files in the given
            directory and all subdirectories.  Default &quot;dir&quot; is the
            current directory.
  /A        Displays files with the hidden or system attributes.  These
            files are omitted by default.
  /I        Continues performing the specified operation even after errors
            have occurred.  By default, COMPACT stops when an error is
            encountered.
  /F        Forces the compress operation on all specified files, even
            those which are already compressed.  Already-compressed files
            are skipped by default.
  /Q        Reports only the most essential information.
  filename  Specifies a pattern, file, or directory.

  Used without parameters, COMPACT displays the compression state of
  the current directory and any files it contains. You may use multiple
  filenames and wildcards.  You must put spaces between multiple
  parameters.
 

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CONVERT

Converts FAT volumes to NTFS.

CONVERT volume /FS:NTFS [/V] [/CvtArea:filename] [/NoSecurity] [/X]

  volume      Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
              mount point, or volume name.
  /FS:NTFS    Specifies that the volume is to be converted to NTFS.
  /V          Specifies that Convert should be run in verbose mode.
  /CvtArea:filename
              Specifies a contiguous file in the root directory to be
              the place holder for NTFS system files.
  /NoSecurity Specifies the converted files and directories security
              settings to be accessible by everyone.
  /X          Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary.
              All opened handles to the volume would then be invalid.
 

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COPY

Copies one or more files to another location.

COPY [/D] [/V] [/N] [/Y | /-Y] [/Z] [/A | /B ] source [/A | /B]
     [+ source [/A | /B] [+ ...]] [destination [/A | /B]]

  source       Specifies the file or files to be copied.
  /A           Indicates an ASCII text file.
  /B           Indicates a binary file.
  /D           Allow the destination file to be created decrypted
  destination  Specifies the directory and/or filename for the new file(s).
  /V           Verifies that new files are written correctly.
  /N           Uses short filename, if available, when copying a file with a
               non-8dot3 name.
  /Y           Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.
  /-Y          Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.
  /Z           Copies networked files in restartable mode.

The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable.
This may be overridden with /-Y on the command line.  Default is
to prompt on overwrites unless COPY command is being executed from
within a batch script.

To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files
for source (using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).
 

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DATE

Displays or sets the date.

DATE [/T | date]

Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and
a prompt for a new one.  Press ENTER to keep the same date.

If Command Extensions are enabled the DATE command supports
the /T switch which tells the command to just output the
current date, without prompting for a new date.
 

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DEL

Deletes one or more files.

DEL [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] names
ERASE [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] names

  names         Specifies a list of one or more files or directories.
                Wildcards may be used to delete multiple files. If a
                directory is specified, all files within the directory
                will be deleted.

  /P            Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.
  /F            Force deleting of read-only files.
  /S            Delete specified files from all subdirectories.
  /Q            Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to delete on global wildcard
  /A            Selects files to delete based on attributes
  attributes    R  Read-only files            S  System files
                H  Hidden files               A  Files ready for archiving
                -  Prefix meaning not

If Command Extensions are enabled DEL and ERASE change as follows:

The display semantics of the /S switch are reversed in that it shows
you only the files that are deleted, not the ones it could not find.
 

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DIR

Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.

DIR [drive:][path][filename] [/A[[:]attributes]] [/B] [/C] [/D] [/L] [/N]
  [/O[[:]sortorder]] [/P] [/Q] [/S] [/T[[:]timefield]] [/W] [/X] [/4]

  [drive:][path][filename]
              Specifies drive, directory, and/or files to list.

  /A          Displays files with specified attributes.
  attributes   D  Directories                R  Read-only files
               H  Hidden files               A  Files ready for archiving
               S  System files               -  Prefix meaning not
  /B          Uses bare format (no heading information or summary).
  /C          Display the thousand separator in file sizes.  This is the
              default.  Use /-C to disable display of separator.
  /D          Same as wide but files are list sorted by column.
  /L          Uses lowercase.
  /N          New long list format where filenames are on the far right.
  /O          List by files in sorted order.
  sortorder    N  By name (alphabetic)       S  By size (smallest first)
               E  By extension (alphabetic)  D  By date/time (oldest first)
               G  Group directories first    -  Prefix to reverse order
  /P          Pauses after each screenful of information.
  /Q          Display the owner of the file.
  /S          Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.
  /T          Controls which time field displayed or used for sorting
  timefield   C  Creation
              A  Last Access
              W  Last Written
  /W          Uses wide list format.
  /X          This displays the short names generated for non-8dot3 file
              names.  The format is that of /N with the short name inserted
              before the long name. If no short name is present, blanks are
              displayed in its place.
  /4          Displays four-digit years

Switches may be preset in the DIRCMD environment variable.  Override
preset switches by prefixing any switch with - (hyphen)--for example, /-W.
 

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DISKCOMP

Compares the contents of two floppy disks.

DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]]

 

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DISKCOPY

Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.

DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/V]

  /V   Verifies that the information is copied correctly.

The two floppy disks must be the same type.
You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.
 

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DOSKEY

Edits command lines, recalls Windows XP commands, and creates macros.

DOSKEY [/REINSTALL] [/LISTSIZE=size] [/MACROS[:ALL | :exename]]
  [/HISTORY] [/INSERT | /OVERSTRIKE] [/EXENAME=exename] [/MACROFILE=filename]
  [macroname=[text]]

  /REINSTALL          Installs a new copy of Doskey.
  /LISTSIZE=size      Sets size of command history buffer.
  /MACROS             Displays all Doskey macros.
  /MACROS:ALL         Displays all Doskey macros for all executables which have
                      Doskey macros.
  /MACROS:exename     Displays all Doskey macros for the given executable.
  /HISTORY            Displays all commands stored in memory.
  /INSERT             Specifies that new text you type is inserted in old text.
  /OVERSTRIKE         Specifies that new text overwrites old text.
  /EXENAME=exename    Specifies the executable.
  /MACROFILE=filename Specifies a file of macros to install.
  macroname           Specifies a name for a macro you create.
  text                Specifies commands you want to record.

UP and DOWN ARROWS recall commands; ESC clears command line; F7 displays
command history; ALT+F7 clears command history; F8 searches command
history; F9 selects a command by number; ALT+F10 clears macro definitions.

The following are some special codes in Doskey macro definitions:
$T     Command separator.  Allows multiple commands in a macro.
$1-$9  Batch parameters.  Equivalent to %1-%9 in batch programs.
$*     Symbol replaced by everything following macro name on command line.
 

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ECHO

Displays messages, or turns command-echoing on or off.

  ECHO [ON | OFF]
  ECHO [message]

Type ECHO without parameters to display the current echo setting.
 

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ENDLOCAL

Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.
Environment changes made after ENDLOCAL has been issued are
not local to the batch file; the previous settings are not
restored on termination of the batch file.

ENDLOCAL

If Command Extensions are enabled ENDLOCAL changes as follows:

If the corresponding SETLOCAL enable or disabled command extensions
using the new ENABLEEXTENSIONS or DISABLEEXTENSIONS options, then
after the ENDLOCAL, the enabled/disabled state of command extensions
will be restored to what it was prior to the matching SETLOCAL
command execution.
 

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ERASE

Deletes one or more files.

DEL [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] names
ERASE [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] names

  names         Specifies a list of one or more files or directories.
                Wildcards may be used to delete multiple files. If a
                directory is specified, all files within the directory
                will be deleted.

  /P            Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.
  /F            Force deleting of read-only files.
  /S            Delete specified files from all subdirectories.
  /Q            Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to delete on global wildcard
  /A            Selects files to delete based on attributes
  attributes    R  Read-only files            S  System files
                H  Hidden files               A  Files ready for archiving
                -  Prefix meaning not

If Command Extensions are enabled DEL and ERASE change as follows:

The display semantics of the /S switch are reversed in that it shows
you only the files that are deleted, not the ones it could not find.
 

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EXIT

Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter) or the current batch
script.

EXIT [/B] [exitCode]

  /B          specifies to exit the current batch script instead of
              CMD.EXE.  If executed from outside a batch script, it
              will quit CMD.EXE

  exitCode    specifies a numeric number.  if /B is specified, sets
              ERRORLEVEL that number.  If quitting CMD.EXE, sets the process
              exit code with that number.
 

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FC

Compares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between
them


FC [/A] [/C] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/OFF[LINE]] [/T] [/U] [/W] [/nnnn]
   [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2
FC /B [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2

  /A         Displays only first and last lines for each set of differences.
  /B         Performs a binary comparison.
  /C         Disregards the case of letters.
  /L         Compares files as ASCII text.
  /LBn       Sets the maximum consecutive mismatches to the specified
             number of lines.
  /N         Displays the line numbers on an ASCII comparison.
  /OFF[LINE] Do not skip files with offline attribute set.
  /T         Does not expand tabs to spaces.
  /U         Compare files as UNICODE text files.
  /W         Compresses white space (tabs and spaces) for comparison.
  /nnnn      Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match
             after a mismatch.
  [drive1:][path1]filename1
             Specifies the first file or set of files to compare.
  [drive2:][path2]filename2
             Specifies the second file or set of files to compare.

 

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FIND

Searches for a text string in a file or files.

FIND [/V] [/C] [/N] [/I] [/OFF[LINE]] &quot;string&quot; [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]]

  /V         Displays all lines NOT containing the specified string.
  /C         Displays only the count of lines containing the string.
  /N         Displays line numbers with the displayed lines.
  /I         Ignores the case of characters when searching for the string.
  /OFF[LINE] Do not skip files with offline attribute set.
  &quot;string&quot;   Specifies the text string to find.
  [drive:][path]filename
             Specifies a file or files to search.

If a path is not specified, FIND searches the text typed at the prompt
or piped from another command.
 

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FINDSTR

Searches for strings in files.

FINDSTR [/B] [/E] [/L] [/R] [/S] [/I] [/X] [/V] [/N] [/M] [/O] [/P] [/F:file]
        [/C:string] [/G:file] [/D:dir list] [/A:color attributes] [/OFF[LINE]]
        strings [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]]

  /B         Matches pattern if at the beginning of a line.
  /E         Matches pattern if at the end of a line.
  /L         Uses search strings literally.
  /R         Uses search strings as regular expressions.
  /S         Searches for matching files in the current directory and all
             subdirectories.
  /I         Specifies that the search is not to be case-sensitive.
  /X         Prints lines that match exactly.
  /V         Prints only lines that do not contain a match.
  /N         Prints the line number before each line that matches.
  /M         Prints only the filename if a file contains a match.
  /O         Prints character offset before each matching line.
  /P         Skip files with non-printable characters.
  /OFF[LINE] Do not skip files with offline attribute set.
  /A:attr    Specifies color attribute with two hex digits. See &quot;color /?&quot;
  /F:file    Reads file list from the specified file(/ stands for console).
  /C:string  Uses specified string as a literal search string.
  /G:file    Gets search strings from the specified file(/ stands for console).
  /D:dir     Search a semicolon delimited list of directories
  strings    Text to be searched for.
  [drive:][path]filename
             Specifies a file or files to search.

Use spaces to separate multiple search strings unless the argument is prefixed
with /C.  For example, &#39;FINDSTR &quot;hello there&quot; x.y&#39; searches for &quot;hello&quot; or
&quot;there&quot; in file x.y.  &#39;FINDSTR /C:&quot;hello there&quot; x.y&#39; searches for
&quot;hello there&quot; in file x.y.

Regular expression quick reference:
  .        Wildcard: any character
  *        Repeat: zero or more occurances of previous character or class
  ^        Line position: beginning of line
  $        Line position: end of line
  [class]  Character class: any one character in set
  [^class] Inverse class: any one character not in set
  [x-y]    Range: any characters within the specified range
  \x       Escape: literal use of metacharacter x
  \<xyz Word position: beginning of word xyz\>    Word position: end of word

For full information on FINDSTR regular expressions refer to the online Command
Reference.
 

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FOR

Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.

FOR %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

  %variable  Specifies a single letter replaceable parameter.
  (set)      Specifies a set of one or more files.  Wildcards may be used.
  command    Specifies the command to carry out for each file.
  command-parameters
             Specifies parameters or switches for the specified command.

To use the FOR command in a batch program, specify %%variable instead
of %variable.  Variable names are case sensitive, so %i is different
from %I.

If Command Extensions are enabled, the following additional
forms of the FOR command are supported:

FOR /D %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

    If set contains wildcards, then specifies to match against directory
    names instead of file names.

FOR /R [[drive:]path] %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

    Walks the directory tree rooted at [drive:]path, executing the FOR
    statement in each directory of the tree.  If no directory
    specification is specified after /R then the current directory is
    assumed.  If set is just a single period (.) character then it
    will just enumerate the directory tree.

FOR /L %variable IN (start,step,end) DO command [command-parameters]

    The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end, by step amount.
    So (1,1,5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5 and (5,-1,1) would
    generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1)

FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (file-set) DO command [command-parameters]
FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (&quot;string&quot;) DO command [command-parameters]
FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (&#39;command&#39;) DO command [command-parameters]

    or, if usebackq option present:

FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (file-set) DO command [command-parameters]
FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (&#39;string&#39;) DO command [command-parameters]
FOR /F [&quot;options&quot;] %variable IN (`command`) DO command [command-parameters]

    filenameset is one or more file names.  Each file is opened, read
    and processed before going on to the next file in filenameset.
    Processing consists of reading in the file, breaking it up into
    individual lines of text and then parsing each line into zero or
    more tokens.  The body of the for loop is then called with the
    variable value(s) set to the found token string(s).  By default, /F
    passes the first blank separated token from each line of each file.
    Blank lines are skipped.  You can override the default parsing
    behavior by specifying the optional &quot;options&quot; parameter.  This
    is a quoted string which contains one or more keywords to specify
    different parsing options.  The keywords are:

        eol=c           - specifies an end of line comment character
                          (just one)
        skip=n          - specifies the number of lines to skip at the
                          beginning of the file.
        delims=xxx      - specifies a delimiter set.  This replaces the
                          default delimiter set of space and tab.
        tokens=x,y,m-n  - specifies which tokens from each line are to
                          be passed to the for body for each iteration.
                          This will cause additional variable names to
                          be allocated.  The m-n form is a range,
                          specifying the mth through the nth tokens.  If
                          the last character in the tokens= string is an
                          asterisk, then an additional variable is
                          allocated and receives the remaining text on
                          the line after the last token parsed.
        usebackq        - specifies that the new semantics are in force,
                          where a back quoted string is executed as a
                          command and a single quoted string is a
                          literal string command and allows the use of
                          double quotes to quote file names in
                          filenameset.

    Some examples might help:

FOR /F &quot;eol=; tokens=2,3* delims=, &quot; %i in (myfile.txt) do @echo %i %j %k

    would parse each line in myfile.txt, ignoring lines that begin with
    a semicolon, passing the 2nd and 3rd token from each line to the for
    body, with tokens delimited by commas and/or spaces.  Notice the for
    body statements reference %i to get the 2nd token, %j to get the
    3rd token, and %k to get all remaining tokens after the 3rd.  For
    file names that contain spaces, you need to quote the filenames with
    double quotes.  In order to use double quotes in this manner, you also
    need to use the usebackq option, otherwise the double quotes will be
    interpreted as defining a literal string to parse.

    %i is explicitly declared in the for statement and the %j and %k
    are implicitly declared via the tokens= option.  You can specify up
    to 26 tokens via the tokens= line, provided it does not cause an
    attempt to declare a variable higher than the letter &#39;z&#39; or &#39;Z&#39;.
    Remember, FOR variables are single-letter, case sensitive, global, 
    and you can&#39;t have more than 52 total active at any one time.

    You can also use the FOR /F parsing logic on an immediate string, by
    making the filenameset between the parenthesis a quoted string,
    using single quote characters.  It will be treated as a single line
    of input from a file and parsed.

    Finally, you can use the FOR /F command to parse the output of a
    command.  You do this by making the filenameset between the
    parenthesis a back quoted string.  It will be treated as a command
    line, which is passed to a child CMD.EXE and the output is captured
    into memory and parsed as if it was a file.  So the following
    example:

      FOR /F &quot;usebackq delims==&quot; %i IN (`set`) DO @echo %i

    would enumerate the environment variable names in the current
    environment.

In addition, substitution of FOR variable references has been enhanced.
You can now use the following optional syntax:

    %~I         - expands %I removing any surrounding quotes (&quot;)
    %~fI        - expands %I to a fully qualified path name
    %~dI        - expands %I to a drive letter only
    %~pI        - expands %I to a path only
    %~nI        - expands %I to a file name only
    %~xI        - expands %I to a file extension only
    %~sI        - expanded path contains short names only
    %~aI        - expands %I to file attributes of file
    %~tI        - expands %I to date/time of file
    %~zI        - expands %I to size of file
    %~$PATH:I   - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                   environment variable and expands %I to the
                   fully qualified name of the first one found.
                   If the environment variable name is not
                   defined or the file is not found by the
                   search, then this modifier expands to the
                   empty string

The modifiers can be combined to get compound results:

    %~dpI       - expands %I to a drive letter and path only
    %~nxI       - expands %I to a file name and extension only
    %~fsI       - expands %I to a full path name with short names only
    %~dp$PATH:I - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                   environment variable for %I and expands to the
                   drive letter and path of the first one found.
    %~ftzaI     - expands %I to a DIR like output line

In the above examples %I and PATH can be replaced by other valid
values.  The %~ syntax is terminated by a valid FOR variable name.
Picking upper case variable names like %I makes it more readable and
avoids confusion with the modifiers, which are not case sensitive.
 

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FORMAT

Formats a disk for use with Windows XP.

FORMAT volume [/FS:file-system] [/V:label] [/Q] [/A:size] [/C] [/X]
FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/F:size]
FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors]
FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q]
FORMAT volume [/Q]

  volume          Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
                  mount point, or volume name.
  /FS:filesystem  Specifies the type of the file system (FAT, FAT32, or NTFS).
  /V:label        Specifies the volume label.
  /Q              Performs a quick format.
  /C              NTFS only: Files created on the new volume will be compressed
                  by default.
  /X              Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary.  All opened
                  handles to the volume would no longer be valid.
  /A:size         Overrides the default allocation unit size. Default settings
                  are strongly recommended for general use.
                  NTFS supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K.
                  FAT supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K,
                  (128K, 256K for sector size &gt; 512 bytes).
                  FAT32 supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K,
                  (128K, 256K for sector size &gt; 512 bytes).

                  Note that the FAT and FAT32 files systems impose the
                  following restrictions on the number of clusters on a volume:

                  FAT: Number of clusters = 65526 FAT32: 65526  Number 
of clusters  4177918 
Format will immediately stop processing if it decides that the above 
requirements cannot be met using the 
specified cluster size.
NTFS compression is not supported for allocation unit sizes above
 4096. /F:size Specifies the size of the
floppy disk to format (1.44) /T:tracks Specifies the number of 
tracks per disk side. /N:sectors Specifies 
the number of sectors per track.  

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FTYPE

Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations

FTYPE [fileType[=[openCommandString]]]

  fileType  Specifies the file type to examine or change
  openCommandString Specifies the open command to use when launching files
                    of this type.

Type FTYPE without parameters to display the current file types that
have open command strings defined.  FTYPE is invoked with just a file
type, it displays the current open command string for that file type.
Specify nothing for the open command string and the FTYPE command will
delete the open command string for the file type.  Within an open
command string %0 or %1 are substituted with the file name being
launched through the assocation.  %* gets all the parameters and %2
gets the 1st parameter, %3 the second, etc.  %~n gets all the remaining
parameters starting with the nth parameter, where n may be between 2 and 9,
inclusive.  For example:

    ASSOC .pl=PerlScript
    FTYPE PerlScript=perl.exe %1 %*

would allow you to invoke a Perl script as follows:

    script.pl 1 2 3

If you want to eliminate the need to type the extensions, then do the
following:

    set PATHEXT=.pl;%PATHEXT%

and the script could be invoked as follows:

    script 1 2 3
 

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GOTO

Directs cmd.exe to a labeled line in a batch program.

GOTO label

  label   Specifies a text string used in the batch program as a label.

You type a label on a line by itself, beginning with a colon.

If Command Extensions are enabled GOTO changes as follows:

GOTO command now accepts a target label of :EOF which transfers control
to the end of the current batch script file.  This is an easy way to
exit a batch script file without defining a label.  Type CALL /?  for a
description of extensions to the CALL command that make this feature
useful.
 

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GRAFTABL

Enable Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode.

GRAFTABL [xxx]
GRAFTABL /STATUS

   xxx      Specifies a code page number.
   /STATUS  Displays the current code page selected for use with GRAFTABL.
 

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HELP

Provides help information for Windows XP commands.

HELP [command]

    command - displays help information on that command.
 

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IF

Performs conditional processing in batch programs.

IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL number command
IF [NOT] string1==string2 command
IF [NOT] EXIST filename command

  NOT               Specifies that Windows XP should carry out 
                    the command only if the condition is false.

  ERRORLEVEL number Specifies a true condition if the last program run
                    returned an exit code equal to or greater than the number
                    specified.

  string1==string2  Specifies a true condition if the specified text strings
                    match.

  EXIST filename    Specifies a true condition if the specified filename
                    exists.

  command           Specifies the command to carry out if the condition is
                    met.  Command can be followed by ELSE command which
                    will execute the command after the ELSE keyword if the
                    specified condition is FALSE

The ELSE clause must occur on the same line as the command after the IF.  For
example:

    IF EXIST filename. (
        del filename.
    ) ELSE (
        echo filename. missing.
    )

The following would NOT work because the del command needs to be terminated
by a newline:

    IF EXIST filename. del filename. ELSE echo filename. missing

Nor would the following work, since the ELSE command must be on the same line
as the end of the IF command:

    IF EXIST filename. del filename.
    ELSE echo filename. missing

The following would work if you want it all on one line:

    IF EXIST filename. (del filename.) ELSE echo filename. missing

If Command Extensions are enabled IF changes as follows:

    IF [/I] string1 compare-op string2 command
    IF CMDEXTVERSION number command
    IF DEFINED variable command

where compare-op may be one of:

    EQU - equal
    NEQ - not equal
    LSS - less than
    LEQ - less than or equal
    GTR - greater than
    GEQ - greater than or equal

and the /I switch, if specified, says to do case insensitive string
compares.  The /I switch can also be used on the string1==string2 form
of IF.  These comparisons are generic, in that if both string1 and
string2 are both comprised of all numeric digits, then the strings are
converted to numbers and a numeric comparison is performed.

The CMDEXTVERSION conditional works just like ERRORLEVEL, except it is
comparing against an internal version number associated with the Command
Extensions.  The first version is 1.  It will be incremented by one when
significant enhancements are added to the Command Extensions.
CMDEXTVERSION conditional is never true when Command Extensions are
disabled.

The DEFINED conditional works just like EXISTS except it takes an
environment variable name and returns true if the environment variable
is defined.

%ERRORLEVEL% will expand into a string representation of
the current value of ERRORLEVEL, provided that there is not already
an environment variable with the name ERRORLEVEL, in which case you
will get its value instead.  After running a program, the following
illustrates ERRORLEVEL use:

    goto answer%ERRORLEVEL%
    :answer0
    echo Program had return code 0
    :answer1
    echo Program had return code 1

You can also using the numerical comparisons above:

    IF %ERRORLEVEL% LEQ 1 goto okay

%CMDCMDLINE% will expand into the original command line passed to
CMD.EXE prior to any processing by CMD.EXE, provided that there is not
already an environment variable with the name CMDCMDLINE, in which case
you will get its value instead.

%CMDEXTVERSION% will expand into a string representation of the
current value of CMDEXTVERSION, provided that there is not already
an environment variable with the name CMDEXTVERSION, in which case you
will get its value instead.
 

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LABEL

Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.

LABEL [drive:][label]
LABEL [/MP] [volume] [label]

  drive:          Specifies the drive letter of a drive.
  label           Specifies the label of the volume.
  /MP             Specifies that the volume should be treated as a
                  mount point or volume name.
  volume          Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
                  mount point, or volume name.  If volume name is specified,
                  the /MP flag is unnecessary.
 

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MD

Creates a directory.

MKDIR [drive:]path
MD [drive:]path

If Command Extensions are enabled MKDIR changes as follows:

MKDIR creates any intermediate directories in the path, if needed.
For example, assume \a does not exist then:

    mkdir \a\b\c\d

is the same as:

    mkdir \a
    chdir \a
    mkdir b
    chdir b
    mkdir c
    chdir c
    mkdir d

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.
 

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MKDIR

Creates a directory.

MKDIR [drive:]path
MD [drive:]path

If Command Extensions are enabled MKDIR changes as follows:

MKDIR creates any intermediate directories in the path, if needed.
For example, assume \a does not exist then:

    mkdir \a\b\c\d

is the same as:

    mkdir \a
    chdir \a
    mkdir b
    chdir b
    mkdir c
    chdir c
    mkdir d

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.
 

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MODE

Configures system devices.

Serial port:       MODE COMm[:] [BAUD=b] [PARITY=p] [DATA=d] [STOP=s]
                                [to=on|off] [xon=on|off] [odsr=on|off]
                                [octs=on|off] [dtr=on|off|hs]
                                [rts=on|off|hs|tg] [idsr=on|off]

Device Status:     MODE [device] [/STATUS]

Redirect printing: MODE LPTn[:]=COMm[:]

Select code page:  MODE CON[:] CP SELECT=yyy

Code page status:  MODE CON[:] CP [/STATUS]

Display mode:      MODE CON[:] [COLS=c] [LINES=n]

Typematic rate:    MODE CON[:] [RATE=r DELAY=d]
 

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MORE

Displays output one screen at a time.

MORE [/E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n]] [drive:][path]filename command-name
 | MORE [/E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n]] MORE /E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n] 
[files] [drive:][path]filename Specifies a file to display one screen at a 
time. command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed. /E 
Enable extended features /C Clear screen before displaying page /P 
Expand FormFeed
 characters /S Squeeze multiple blank lines into a single
 line /Tn Expand tabs to n spaces 
(default 8) Switches can be present in the MORE environment 
variable. +n Start displaying the 
first file at line n files List of files to be displayed.
 Files in the list are separated by blanks.
 If extended features are enabled, the following commands 
are accepted at the More prompt: P n Display
 next n lines S n Skip next n lines F Display next file 
Q Quit=&quot;Show&quot; line number ? 
Show help line space Display next page
 Display next line
 

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MOVE

Moves files and renames files and directories.

To move one or more files:
MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [drive:][path]filename1[,...] destination

To rename a directory:
MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [drive:][path]dirname1 dirname2

  [drive:][path]filename1 Specifies the location and name of the file
                          or files you want to move.
  destination             Specifies the new location of the file. Destination
                          can consist of a drive letter and colon, a
                          directory name, or a combination. If you are moving
                          only one file, you can also include a filename if
                          you want to rename the file when you move it.
  [drive:][path]dirname1  Specifies the directory you want to rename.
  dirname2                Specifies the new name of the directory.

  /Y                      Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to
                          overwrite an existing destination file.
  /-Y                     Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite
                          an existing destination file.

The switch /Y may be present in the COPYCMD environment variable.
This may be overridden with /-Y on the command line.  Default is
to prompt on overwrites unless MOVE command is being executed from
within a batch script.
 

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PATH

Displays or sets a search path for executable files.

PATH [[drive:]path[;...][;%PATH%]
PATH ;

Type PATH ; to clear all search-path settings and direct cmd.exe to search
only in the current directory.
Type PATH without parameters to display the current path.
Including %PATH% in the new path setting causes the old path to be
appended to the new setting.
 

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PAUSE

Suspends processing of a batch program and displays the message
    Press any key to continue . . .  

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POPD

Changes to the directory stored by the PUSHD command.

POPD


If Command Extensions are enabled the POPD command will delete
any temporary drive letter created by PUSHD when you POPD that
drive off the pushed directory stack.
 

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PRINT

Prints a text file.

PRINT [/D:device] [[drive:][path]filename[...]]

   /D:device   Specifies a print device.

 

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PROMPT

Changes the cmd.exe command prompt.

PROMPT [text]

  text    Specifies a new command prompt.

Prompt can be made up of normal characters and the following special codes:

  $A   &amp; (Ampersand)
  $B   | (pipe)
  $C   ( (Left parenthesis)
  $D   Current date
  $E   Escape code (ASCII code 27)
  $F   ) (Right parenthesis)
  $G   &gt; (greater-than sign)
  $H   Backspace (erases previous character)
  $L   (less-than sign) $N Current drive $P Current drive and path $Q=&quot;(equal&quot;
 sign) $S (space) $T Current
 time $V Windows XP version number $_ Carriage return and linefeed $$ $ (dollar sign)
 If Command Extensions 
are enabled the PROMPT command supports the following additional formatting
 characters: $+ zero or more plus 
sign (+) characters depending upon the depth of the PUSHD directory stack, 
one character for each level pushed. 
$M Displays the remote name associated with the current drive letter or the empty string if
 current drive is not a network drive.  

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PUSHD

Stores the current directory for use by the POPD command, then
changes to the specified directory.

PUSHD [path | ..]

  path        Specifies the directory to make the current directory.

If Command Extensions are enabled the PUSHD command accepts
network paths in addition to the normal drive letter and path.
If a network path is specified, PUSHD will create a temporary
drive letter that points to that specified network resource and
then change the current drive and directory, using the newly
defined drive letter.  Temporary drive letters are allocated from
Z: on down, using the first unused drive letter found.
 

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RD

Removes (deletes) a directory.

RMDIR [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path
RD [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path

    /S      Removes all directories and files in the specified directory
            in addition to the directory itself.  Used to remove a directory
            tree.

    /Q      Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to remove a directory tree with /S
 

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RECOVER

Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.

RECOVER [drive:][path]filename
Consult the online Command Reference in Windows XP Help
before using the RECOVER command.
 

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REM

Records comments (remarks) in a batch file or CONFIG.SYS.

REM [comment]
 

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REN

Renames a file or files.

RENAME [drive:][path]filename1 filename2.
REN [drive:][path]filename1 filename2.

Note that you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination file.
 

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RENAME

Renames a file or files.

RENAME [drive:][path]filename1 filename2.
REN [drive:][path]filename1 filename2.

Note that you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination file.
 

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REPLACE

Replaces files.

REPLACE [drive1:][path1]filename [drive2:][path2] [/A] [/P] [/R] [/W]
REPLACE [drive1:][path1]filename [drive2:][path2] [/P] [/R] [/S] [/W] [/U]

  [drive1:][path1]filename Specifies the source file or files.
  [drive2:][path2]         Specifies the directory where files are to be
                           replaced.
  /A                       Adds new files to destination directory. Cannot
                           use with /S or /U switches.
  /P                       Prompts for confirmation before replacing a file or
                           adding a source file.
  /R                       Replaces read-only files as well as unprotected
                           files.
  /S                       Replaces files in all subdirectories of the
                           destination directory. Cannot use with the /A
                           switch.
  /W                       Waits for you to insert a disk before beginning.
  /U                       Replaces (updates) only files that are older than
                           source files. Cannot use with the /A switch.
 

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RMDIR

Removes (deletes) a directory.

RMDIR [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path
RD [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path

    /S      Removes all directories and files in the specified directory
            in addition to the directory itself.  Used to remove a directory
            tree.

    /Q      Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to remove a directory tree with /S
 

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SET

Displays, sets, or removes cmd.exe environment variables.

SET [variable=[string]]

  variable  Specifies the environment-variable name.
  string    Specifies a series of characters to assign to the variable.

Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables.

If Command Extensions are enabled SET changes as follows:

SET command invoked with just a variable name, no equal sign or value
will display the value of all variables whose prefix matches the name
given to the SET command.  For example:

    SET P

would display all variables that begin with the letter &#39;P&#39;

SET command will set the ERRORLEVEL to 1 if the variable name is not
found in the current environment.

SET command will not allow an equal sign to be part of the name of
a variable.

Two new switches have been added to the SET command:

    SET /A expression
    SET /P variable=[promptString]

The /A switch specifies that the string to the right of the equal sign
is a numerical expression that is evaluated.  The expression evaluator
is pretty simple and supports the following operations, in decreasing
order of precedence:

    ()                  - grouping
    ! ~ -               - unary operators
    * / %               - arithmetic operators
    + -                 - arithmetic operators
    &lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;               - logical shift
    &amp;                   - bitwise and
    ^                   - bitwise exclusive or
    |                   - bitwise or
    = *= /= %= += -=    - assignment
      &amp;= ^= |= &lt;&lt;=&gt;&gt;=
    ,                   - expression separator

If you use any of the logical or modulus operators, you will need to
enclose the expression string in quotes.  Any non-numeric strings in the
expression are treated as environment variable names whose values are
converted to numbers before using them.  If an environment variable name
is specified but is not defined in the current environment, then a value
of zero is used.  This allows you to do arithmetic with environment
variable values without having to type all those % signs to get their
values.  If SET /A is executed from the command line outside of a
command script, then it displays the final value of the expression.  The
assignment operator requires an environment variable name to the left of
the assignment operator.  Numeric values are decimal numbers, unless
prefixed by 0x for hexadecimal numbers, and 0 for octal numbers.
So 0x12 is the same as 18 is the same as 022. Please note that the octal
notation can be confusing: 08 and 09 are not valid numbers because 8 and
9 are not valid octal digits.

The /P switch allows you to set the value of a variable to a line of input
entered by the user.  Displays the specified promptString before reading
the line of input.  The promptString can be empty.

Environment variable substitution has been enhanced as follows:

    %PATH:str1=str2%

would expand the PATH environment variable, substituting each occurrence
of &quot;str1&quot; in the expanded result with &quot;str2&quot;.  &quot;str2&quot; can be the empty
string to effectively delete all occurrences of &quot;str1&quot; from the expanded
output.  &quot;str1&quot; can begin with an asterisk, in which case it will match
everything from the beginning of the expanded output to the first
occurrence of the remaining portion of str1.

May also specify substrings for an expansion.

    %PATH:~10,5%

would expand the PATH environment variable, and then use only the 5
characters that begin at the 11th (offset 10) character of the expanded
result.  If the length is not specified, then it defaults to the
remainder of the variable value.  If either number (offset or length) is
negative, then the number used is the length of the environment variable
value added to the offset or length specified.

    %PATH:~-10%

would extract the last 10 characters of the PATH variable.

    %PATH:~0,-2%

would extract all but the last 2 characters of the PATH variable.

Finally, support for delayed environment variable expansion has been
added.  This support is always disabled by default, but may be
enabled/disabled via the /V command line switch to CMD.EXE.  See CMD /?

Delayed environment variable expansion is useful for getting around
the limitations of the current expansion which happens when a line
of text is read, not when it is executed.  The following example
demonstrates the problem with immediate variable expansion:

    set VAR=before
    if &quot;%VAR%&quot; == &quot;before&quot; (
        set VAR=after
        if &quot;%VAR%&quot; == &quot;after&quot; @echo If you see this, it worked
    )

would never display the message, since the %VAR% in BOTH IF statements
is substituted when the first IF statement is read, since it logically
includes the body of the IF, which is a compound statement.  So the
IF inside the compound statement is really comparing &quot;before&quot; with
&quot;after&quot; which will never be equal.  Similarly, the following example
will not work as expected:

    set LIST=
    for %i in (*) do set LIST=%LIST% %i
    echo %LIST%

in that it will NOT build up a list of files in the current directory,
but instead will just set the LIST variable to the last file found.
Again, this is because the %LIST% is expanded just once when the
FOR statement is read, and at that time the LIST variable is empty.
So the actual FOR loop we are executing is:

    for %i in (*) do set LIST= %i

which just keeps setting LIST to the last file found.

Delayed environment variable expansion allows you to use a different
character (the exclamation mark) to expand environment variables at
execution time.  If delayed variable expansion is enabled, the above
examples could be written as follows to work as intended:

    set VAR=before
    if &quot;%VAR%&quot; == &quot;before&quot; (
        set VAR=after
        if &quot;!VAR!&quot; == &quot;after&quot; @echo If you see this, it worked
    )

    set LIST=
    for %i in (*) do set LIST=!LIST! %i
    echo %LIST%

If Command Extensions are enabled, then there are several dynamic
environment variables that can be expanded but which don&#39;t show up in
the list of variables displayed by SET.  These variable values are
computed dynamically each time the value of the variable is expanded.
If the user explicitly defines a variable with one of these names, then
that definition will override the dynamic one described below:

%CD% - expands to the current directory string.

%DATE% - expands to current date using same format as DATE command.

%TIME% - expands to current time using same format as TIME command.

%RANDOM% - expands to a random decimal number between 0 and 32767.

%ERRORLEVEL% - expands to the current ERRORLEVEL value

%CMDEXTVERSION% - expands to the current Command Processor Extensions
    version number.

%CMDCMDLINE% - expands to the original command line that invoked the
    Command Processor.
 

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SETLOCAL

Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.  Environment
changes made after SETLOCAL has been issued are local to the batch file.
ENDLOCAL must be issued to restore the previous settings.  When the end
of a batch script is reached, an implied ENDLOCAL is executed for any
outstanding SETLOCAL commands issued by that batch script.

SETLOCAL

If Command Extensions are enabled SETLOCAL changes as follows:

SETLOCAL batch command now accepts optional arguments:
        ENABLEEXTENSIONS / DISABLEEXTENSIONS
            enable or disable command processor extensions.  See
            CMD /? for details.
        ENABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION / DISABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION
            enable or disable delayed environment variable
            expansion.  See SET /? for details.
These modifications last until the matching ENDLOCAL command,
regardless of their setting prior to the SETLOCAL command.

The SETLOCAL command will set the ERRORLEVEL value if given
an argument.  It will be zero if one of the two valid arguments
is given and one otherwise.  You can use this in batch scripts
to determine if the extensions are available, using the following
technique:

    VERIFY OTHER 2&gt;nul
    SETLOCAL ENABLEEXTENSIONS
    IF ERRORLEVEL 1 echo Unable to enable extensions

This works because on old versions of CMD.EXE, SETLOCAL does NOT
set the ERRORLEVEL value. The VERIFY command with a bad argument
initializes the ERRORLEVEL value to a non-zero value.
 

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SHIFT

Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file.

SHIFT [/n]

If Command Extensions are enabled the SHIFT command supports
the /n switch which tells the command to start shifting at the
nth argument, where n may be between zero and eight.  For example:

    SHIFT /2

would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, etc. and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.
 

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SORT

SORT [/R] [/+n] [/M kilobytes] [/L locale] [/REC recordbytes]

  [[drive1:][path1]filename1] [/T [drive2:][path2]]

  [/O [drive3:][path3]filename3]

  /+n                         Specifies the character number, n, to

                              begin each comparison.  /+3 indicates that

                              each comparison should begin at the 3rd

                              character in each line.  Lines with fewer

                              than n characters collate before other lines.

                              By default comparisons start at the first

                              character in each line.

  /L[OCALE] locale            Overrides the system default locale with

                              the specified one.  The &quot;&quot;C&quot;&quot; locale yields

                              the fastest collating sequence and is

                              currently the only alternative.  The sort

                              is always case insensitive.

  /M[EMORY] kilobytes         Specifies amount of main memory to use for

                              the sort, in kilobytes.  The memory size is

                              always constrained to be a minimum of 160

                              kilobytes.  If the memory size is specified

                              the exact amount will be used for the sort,

                              regardless of how much main memory is

                              available.



                              The best performance is usually achieved by

                              not specifying a memory size.  By default the

                              sort will be done with one pass (no temporary

                              file) if it fits in the default maximum

                              memory size, otherwise the sort will be done

                              in two passes (with the partially sorted data

                              being stored in a temporary file) such that

                              the amounts of memory used for both the sort

                              and merge passes are equal.  The default

                              maximum memory size is 90% of available main

                              memory if both the input and output are

                              files, and 45% of main memory otherwise.

  /REC[ORD_MAXIMUM] characters Specifies the maximum number of characters

                              in a record (default 4096, maximum 65535).

  /R[EVERSE]                  Reverses the sort order; that is,

                              sorts Z to A, then 9 to 0.

  [drive1:][path1]filename1   Specifies the file to be sorted.  If not

                              specified, the standard input is sorted.

                              Specifying the input file is faster than

                              redirecting the same file as standard input.

  /T[EMPORARY]

    [drive2:][path2]          Specifies the path of the directory to hold

                              the sort&#39;s working storage, in case the data

                              does not fit in main memory.  The default is

                              to use the system temporary directory.

  /O[UTPUT]

    [drive3:][path3]filename3 Specifies the file where the sorted input is

                              to be stored.  If not specified, the data is

                              written to the standard output.   Specifying

                              the output file is faster than redirecting

                              standard output to the same file.


 

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START

Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.

START [&quot;title&quot;] [/Dpath] [/I] [/MIN] [/MAX] [/SEPARATE | /SHARED]
      [/LOW | /NORMAL | /HIGH | /REALTIME | /ABOVENORMAL | /BELOWNORMAL]
      [/WAIT] [/B] [command/program]
      [parameters]

    &quot;title&quot;     Title to display in  window title bar.
    path        Starting directory
    B           Start application without creating a new window. The
                application has ^C handling ignored. Unless the application
                enables ^C processing, ^Break is the only way to interrupt
                the application
    I           The new environment will be the original environment passed
                to the cmd.exe and not the current environment.
    MIN         Start window minimized
    MAX         Start window maximized
    SEPARATE    Start 16-bit Windows program in separate memory space
    SHARED      Start 16-bit Windows program in shared memory space
    LOW         Start application in the IDLE priority class
    NORMAL      Start application in the NORMAL priority class
    HIGH        Start application in the HIGH priority class
    REALTIME    Start application in the REALTIME priority class
    ABOVENORMAL Start application in the ABOVENORMAL priority class
    BELOWNORMAL Start application in the BELOWNORMAL priority class
    WAIT        Start application and wait for it to terminate
    command/program
                If it is an internal cmd command or a batch file then
                the command processor is run with the /K switch to cmd.exe.
                This means that the window will remain after the command
                has been run.

                If it is not an internal cmd command or batch file then
                it is a program and will run as either a windowed application
                or a console application.

    parameters  These are the parameters passed to the command/program


If Command Extensions are enabled, external command invocation
through the command line or the START command changes as follows:

non-executable files may be invoked through their file association just
    by typing the name of the file as a command.  (e.g.  WORD.DOC would
    launch the application associated with the .DOC file extension).
    See the ASSOC and FTYPE commands for how to create these
    associations from within a command script.

When executing an application that is a 32-bit GUI application, CMD.EXE
    does not wait for the application to terminate before returning to
    the command prompt.  This new behavior does NOT occur if executing
    within a command script.

When executing a command line whose first token is the string &quot;CMD &quot;
    without an extension or path qualifier, then &quot;CMD&quot; is replaced with
    the value of the COMSPEC variable.  This prevents picking up CMD.EXE
    from the current directory.

When executing a command line whose first token does NOT contain an
    extension, then CMD.EXE uses the value of the PATHEXT
    environment variable to determine which extensions to look for
    and in what order.  The default value for the PATHEXT variable
    is:

        .COM;.EXE;.BAT;.CMD

    Notice the syntax is the same as the PATH variable, with
    semicolons separating the different elements.

When searching for an executable, if there is no match on any extension,
then looks to see if the name matches a directory name.  If it does, the
START command launches the Explorer on that path.  If done from the
command line, it is the equivalent to doing a CD /D to that path.
 

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SUBST

Associates a path with a drive letter.

SUBST [drive1: [drive2:]path]
SUBST drive1: /D

  drive1:        Specifies a virtual drive to which you want to assign a path.
  [drive2:]path  Specifies a physical drive and path you want to assign to
                 a virtual drive.
  /D             Deletes a substituted (virtual) drive.

Type SUBST with no parameters to display a list of current virtual drives.
 

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TIME

Displays or sets the system time.

TIME [/T | time]

Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt
for a new one.  Press ENTER to keep the same time.

If Command Extensions are enabled the TIME command supports
the /T switch which tells the command to just output the
current time, without prompting for a new time.
 

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TITLE

Sets the window title for the command prompt window.

TITLE [string]

  string       Specifies the title for the command prompt window.
 

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TREE

Graphically displays the folder structure of a drive or path.

TREE [drive:][path] [/F] [/A]

   /F   Display the names of the files in each folder.
   /A   Use ASCII instead of extended characters.

 

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TYPE

Displays the contents of a text file or files.

TYPE [drive:][path]filename
 

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VER

Displays the Windows XP version.

VER
 

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VERIFY

Tells cmd.exe whether to verify that your files are written correctly to a
disk.

VERIFY [ON | OFF]

Type VERIFY without a parameter to display the current VERIFY setting.
 

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VOL

Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist.

VOL [drive:]
 

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XCOPY

Copies files and directory trees.

XCOPY source [destination] [/A | /M] [/D[:date]] [/P] [/S [/E]] [/V] [/W]
                           [/C] [/I] [/Q] [/F] [/L] [/G] [/H] [/R] [/T] [/U]
                           [/K] [/N] [/O] [/X] [/Y] [/-Y] [/Z]
                           [/EXCLUDE:file1[+file2][+file3]...]

  source       Specifies the file(s) to copy.
  destination  Specifies the location and/or name of new files.
  /A           Copies only files with the archive attribute set,
               doesn&#39;t change the attribute.
  /M           Copies only files with the archive attribute set,
               turns off the archive attribute.
  /D:m-d-y     Copies files changed on or after the specified date.
               If no date is given, copies only those files whose
               source time is newer than the destination time.
  /EXCLUDE:file1[+file2][+file3]...
               Specifies a list of files containing strings.  Each string
               should be in a separate line in the files.  When any of the
               strings match any part of the absolute path of the file to be
               copied, that file will be excluded from being copied.  For
               example, specifying a string like \obj\ or .obj will exclude
               all files underneath the directory obj or all files with the
               .obj extension respectively.
  /P           Prompts you before creating each destination file.
  /S           Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.
  /E           Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty ones.
               Same as /S /E. May be used to modify /T.
  /V           Verifies each new file.
  /W           Prompts you to press a key before copying.
  /C           Continues copying even if errors occur.
  /I           If destination does not exist and copying more than one file,
               assumes that destination must be a directory.
  /Q           Does not display file names while copying.
  /F           Displays full source and destination file names while copying.
  /L           Displays files that would be copied.
  /G           Allows the copying of encrypted files to destination that does
               not support encryption.
  /H           Copies hidden and system files also.
  /R           Overwrites read-only files.
  /T           Creates directory structure, but does not copy files. Does not
               include empty directories or subdirectories. /T /E includes
               empty directories and subdirectories.
  /U           Copies only files that already exist in destination.
  /K           Copies attributes. Normal Xcopy will reset read-only attributes.
  /N           Copies using the generated short names.
  /O           Copies file ownership and ACL information.
  /X           Copies file audit settings (implies /O).
  /Y           Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.
  /-Y          Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.
  /Z           Copies networked files in restartable mode.

The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable.
This may be overridden with /-Y on the command line.
 

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APPEND

Allows programs to open data files in specified directories as if they were in
the current directory.

APPEND [[drive:]path[;...]] [/X[:ON | :OFF]] [/PATH:ON | /PATH:OFF] [/E]
APPEND ;

  [drive:]path Specifies a drive and directory to append.
  /X:ON        Applies appended directories to file searches and
               application execution.
  /X:OFF       Applies appended directories only to requests to open files.
               /X:OFF is the default setting.
  /PATH:ON     Applies appended directories to file requests that already
               specify a path.  /PATH:ON is the default setting.
  /PATH:OFF    Turns off the effect of /PATH:ON.
  /E           Stores a copy of the appended directory list in an environment
               variable named APPEND.  /E may be used only the first time
               you use APPEND after starting your system.

Type APPEND ; to clear the appended directory list.
Type APPEND without parameters to display the appended directory list.
 

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ARP

Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by
address resolution protocol (ARP).

ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr]
ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr]
ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr]

  -a            Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current
                protocol data.  If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical
                addresses for only the specified computer are displayed.  If
                more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP
                table are displayed.
  -g            Same as -a.
  inet_addr     Specifies an internet address.
  -N if_addr    Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified
                by if_addr.
  -d            Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be 
                wildcarded with * to delete all hosts.
  -s            Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr
                with the Physical address eth_addr.  The Physical address is
                given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry
                is permanent.
  eth_addr      Specifies a physical address.
  if_addr       If present, this specifies the Internet address of the
                interface whose address translation table should be modified.
                If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.
Example:
  &gt; arp -s 157.55.85.212   00-aa-00-62-c6-09  .... Adds a static entry.
  &gt; arp -a                                    .... Displays the arp table.
 

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ATMADM

Usage: atmadm [options]

       where options are one or more of:

         -c         List all connections

         -a         List all registered addresses

         -s         Display Statistics

 

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AUDITUSR

Auditusr - sets per user auditing policy.

/? prints command-line help.

If no parameters are given then the current settings will be displayed.

Specify one of:

/is <security principal>:<list of comma-delimited categories>

adds or changes an include-success entry

/if <security principal>:<list of comma-delimited categories>

adds or changes an include-failure entry

/es <security principal>:<list of comma-delimited categories>

adds or changes an exclude-success entry

/ef <security principal>:<list of comma-delimited categories>

adds or changes an exclude-failure entry

/r <security principal>

removes all per-user auditing entries for that security principal

/ra

   removes all per-user auditing entries

/e <filename>

exports current per-user auditing settings to a file

/i <filename>

imports current per-user auditing settings from a file

Valid categories are:

System Event
Logon/Logoff
Object Access
Privilege Use
Detailed Tracking
Policy Change
Account Management
Directory Service Access
Account Logon
 

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BLASTCLN

/V - enable verbose mode
 

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CSCRIPT

Microsoft (R) Windows Script Host Version 5.6
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation 1996-2001. All rights reserved.

Usage: CScript scriptname.extension [option...] [arguments...]

Options:
 //B         Batch mode: Suppresses script errors and prompts from displaying
 //D         Enable Active Debugging
 //E:engine  Use engine for executing script
 //H:CScript Changes the default script host to CScript.exe
 //H:WScript Changes the default script host to WScript.exe (default)
 //I         Interactive mode (default, opposite of //B)
 //Job:xxxx  Execute a WSF job
 //Logo      Display logo (default)
 //Nologo    Prevent logo display: No banner will be shown at execution time
 //S         Save current command line options for this user
 //T:nn      Time out in seconds:  Maximum time a script is permitted to run
 //X         Execute script in debugger
 //U         Use Unicode for redirected I/O from the console
 

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DEBUG

Runs Debug, a program testing and editing tool.

DEBUG [[drive:][path]filename [testfile-parameters]]

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies the file you want to test.
  testfile-parameters     Specifies command-line information required by
                          the file you want to test.

After Debug starts, type ? to display a list of debugging commands.
 

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DEFRAG

Usage:
DEFRAG <volume> [-a] [-f] [-v] [-?]
  volume  drive letter or mount point (d: or d:\vol\mountpoint)
  -a      Analyze only
  -f      Force defragmentation even if free space is low
  -v      Verbose output
  -?      Display this help text
 

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DIANTZ

Microsoft (R) Cabinet Maker - Version 5.1.2600.2180
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved..

MAKECAB [/V[n]] [/D var=value ...] [/L dir] source [destination]
MAKECAB [/V[n]] [/D var=value ...] /F directive_file [...]

  source         File to compress.
  destination    File name to give compressed file.  If omitted, the
                 last character of the source file name is replaced
                 with an underscore (_) and used as the destination.
  /F directives  A file with MakeCAB directives (may be repeated).
  /D var=value   Defines variable with specified value.
  /L dir         Location to place destination (default is current directory).
  /V[n]          Verbosity level (1..3).
 

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DISKPART

Microsoft DiskPart version 5.1.3565

Copyright (C) 1999-2003 Microsoft Corporation.
On computer: A1010Y-PC

Microsoft DiskPart syntax:
	diskpart [/s (script Ra2D)] [/?]

	/s (script Ra2D) - Use a DiskPart script.
	/?          - Show this help screen.
 

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DISKPERF


DISKPERF [-Y[D|V] | -N[D|V]] [\\computername]

  -Y  Sets the system to start all disk performance counters
      when the system is restarted.

  -YD Enables the disk performance counters for physical drives.
      when the system is restarted.
  -YV Enables the disk performance counters for logical drives
      or storage volumes when the system is restarted.
  -N  Sets the system to disable all disk performance counters
      when the system is restarted.

  -ND Disables the disk performance counters for physical drives.
  -NV Disables the disk performance counters for logical drives.
  \\computername        Is the name of the computer you want to
                        see or set disk performance counter use.
                        The computer must be a Windows 2000 system.
  NOTE: Disk performance counters are permanently enabled on
        systems beyond Windows 2000.
 

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EDLIN

Starts Edlin, a line-oriented text editor.

EDLIN [drive:][path]filename [/B]

  /B   Ignores end-of-file (CTRL+Z) characters.
 

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EXE2BIN

Converts .EXE (executable) files to binary format.

EXE2BIN [drive1:][path1]input-file [[drive2:][path2]output-file]

  input-file   Specifies the .EXE file to be converted.
  output-file  Specifies the binary file to be created.
 

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EXPAND

Microsoft (R) File Expansion Utility  Version 5.1.2600.0
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp 1990-1999.  All rights reserved.

Expands one or more compressed files.

EXPAND [-r] Source Destination
EXPAND -r Source [Destination]
EXPAND -D Source.cab [-F:Files]
EXPAND Source.cab -F:Files Destination

  -r		Rename expanded files.
  -D		Display list of files in source.
  Source	Source file specification.  Wildcards may be used.
  -F:Files	Name of files to expand from a .CAB.
  Destination	Destination file | path specification.
		Destination may be a directory.
		If Source is multiple files and -r is not specified,
		Destination must be a directory.
 

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FINGER


Displays information about a user on a specified system running the

Finger service. Output varies based on the remote system.



FINGER [-l] [user]@host [...]



  -l        Displays information in long list format.

  user      Specifies the user you want information about. Omit the user

            parameter to display information about all users on the

            specifed host.

  @host     Specifies the server on the remote system whose users you

            want information about.



 

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FLTMC

Valid commands:
    load        Loads a Filter driver	
    unload      Unloads a Filter driver
    filters     Lists the Filters currently registered 
in the system	
    instances   Lists the Instances for a Filter 
or Volume currently	
                registered in the system	
    volumes     Lists all volumes/RDRs in the system
    attach      Creates a Filter Instance to a Volume	
    detach      Removes a Filter Instance from a Volume	
    Use fltmc help [ command ] for help on a specific command
 

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FORCEDOS

FORCEDOS [/D directory] filename [parameters]
/D directory    Specifies the current directory for
                the specified program to use.
filename        Specifies the program to start.
parameters      Specifies parameters to pass to the program.
 

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FSUTIL

---- Commands Supported ----



behavior        Control file system behavior

dirty           Manage volume dirty bit

file            File specific commands

fsinfo          File system information

hardlink        Hardlink management

objectid        Object ID management

quota           Quota management

reparsepoint    Reparse point management

sparse          Sparse file control

usn             USN management

volume          Volume management

 

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FTP


Transfers files to and from a computer running an FTP server service

(sometimes called a daemon). Ftp can be used interactively.



FTP [-v] [-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-s:filename] [-a] [-w:windowsize] [-A] [host]



  -v             Suppresses display of remote server responses.

  -n             Suppresses auto-login upon initial connection.

  -i             Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file

                 transfers.

  -d             Enables debugging.

  -g             Disables filename globbing (see GLOB command).

  -s:filename    Specifies a text file containing FTP commands; the

                 commands will automatically run after FTP starts.

  -a             Use any local interface when binding data connection.

  -A             login as anonymous.

  -w:buffersize  Overrides the default transfer buffer size of 4096.

  host           Specifies the host name or IP address of the remote

                 host to connect to.



Notes:

  - mget and mput commands take y/n/q for yes/no/quit.

  - Use Control-C to abort commands.

 

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HOSTNAME


Prints the name of the current host.



hostname



 

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IPCONFIG


USAGE:

    ipconfig [/? | /all | /renew [adapter] | /release [adapter] |

              /flushdns | /displaydns | /registerdns |

              /showclassid adapter |

              /setclassid adapter [classid] ]



where

    adapter         Connection name 

                   (wildcard characters * and ? allowed, see examples)



    Options:

       /?           Display this help message

       /all         Display full configuration information.

       /release     Release the IP address for the specified adapter.

       /renew       Renew the IP address for the specified adapter.

       /flushdns    Purges the DNS Resolver cache.

       /registerdns Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names

       /displaydns  Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache.

       /showclassid Displays all the dhcp class IDs allowed for adapter.

       /setclassid  Modifies the dhcp class id.  



The default is to display only the IP address, subnet mask and

default gateway for each adapter bound to TCP/IP.



For Release and Renew, if no adapter name is specified, then the IP address

leases for all adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed.



For Setclassid, if no ClassId is specified, then the ClassId is removed.



Examples:

    &gt; ipconfig                   ... Show information.

    &gt; ipconfig /all              ... Show detailed information

    &gt; ipconfig /renew            ... renew all adapters

    &gt; ipconfig /renew EL*        ... renew any connection that has its 

                                     name starting with EL

    &gt; ipconfig /release *Con*    ... release all matching connections,

                                     eg. &quot;Local Area Connection 1&quot; or

                                         &quot;Local Area Connection 2&quot;

 

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JAVA

Usage: java [-options] class [args...]
           (to execute a class)
   or  java [-options] -jar jarfile [args...]
           (to execute a jar file)

where options include:
    -client	  to select the &quot;client&quot; VM
    -server	  to select the &quot;server&quot; VM
    -hotspot	  is a synonym for the &quot;client&quot; VM  [deprecated]
                  The default VM is client.
                  
    -cp <class search path of directories and zip/jar files>
-classpath <class search path of directories and zip/jar files>
A ; separated list of directories, JAR archives,
                  and ZIP archives to search for class files.
    -D<name>=<value>
set a system property
    -verbose[:class|gc|jni]
                  enable verbose output
    -version      print product version and exit
    -version:<value>
require the specified version to run
    -showversion  print product version and continue
    -jre-restrict-search | -jre-no-restrict-search
                  include/exclude user private JREs in the version search
    -? -help      print this help message
    -X            print help on non-standard options
    -ea[:<packagename>...|:<classname>]
    -enableassertions[:<packagename>...|:<classname>]
                  enable assertions
    -da[:<packagename>...|:<classname>]
    -disableassertions[:<packagename>...|:<classname>]
                  disable assertions
    -esa | -enablesystemassertions
                  enable system assertions
    -dsa | -disablesystemassertions
                  disable system assertions
    -agentlib:<libname>[=<options>]
                  load native agent library <libname>, e.g. -agentlib:hprof
                    see also, -agentlib:jdwp=help and -agentlib:hprof=help
    -agentpath:<pathname>[=<options>]
                  load native agent library by full pathname
    -javaagent:<jarpath>[=<options>]
                  load Java programming language agent, see java.lang.instrument
    -splash:<imagepath>
show splash screen with specified image
 

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LODCTR


LODCTR
    Updates Performance Monitor counter names and explain text for an extensible counter

Usage:
    LODCTR [\\computername] filename
        computername is the name of the remote computer.
            Local machine is used if computername is not specified.
        filename is the name of the initialization file that contains
            the counter name definitions and explain text for an extensible
            counter DLL.

    LODCTR /S:<FileName>
save current perf registry strings and info to <FileName>

LODCTR /R:<FileName>
restore perf registry strings and info using <FileName>

Note: any arguments with spaces in the names must be enclosed within
Double Quotation marks.
 

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LOGMAN

Microsoft r Logman.exe (5.1.2600.2180)
c Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Logman 
manages 
the 
&quot;PerformanceLogs and 
Alerts&quot; 
service 
for 
creating 
and 
managing 
Event 
Trace 
Session 
logs and 
Performancelogs. 
     
     
     
     __


Usage:
LOGMAN VERB <collection_name> 
[options]

Verbs:
  create <counter|trace>        Create a new collection. 
  start                         Start an existing collection and set the 
                                begin time to manual. 
  stop                          Stop an existing collection and set the end 
                                time to manual. 
  delete                        Delete an existing collection. 
  query [collection_name|providers]  Query collection properties. If no 
                                collection_name is given all collections are 
                                listed. The keyword &#39;providers&#39; will list all 
                                of the registered Event Trace providers. 
  update                        Update an existing collection properties. 

Parameters:
<collection_name>             Name of the collection. 

Options:
  -?                            Displays context sensitive help. 
  -s <computer>                 Perform the command on specified remote 
                                system. 
  -config <filename>            Settings file containing command options. 
  -b <M/d/yyyy h:mm:ss[AM|PM]>  Begin the collection at specified time. 
  -e <M/d/yyyy h:mm:ss[AM|PM]>  End the collection at specified time. 
  -m &lt;[start] [stop]&gt;           Change to manual start or stop rather than a 
                                scheduled begin or end time. 
  -[-]r                         Repeat the collection daily at the specified 
                                begin and end times. 
  -o <path|dsn!log>             Path of the output log file or the DSN and 
                                log set name in a SQL database. 
  -f <bin|bincirc|csv|tsv|sql>  Specifies the log format for the collection. 
  -[-]a                         Append to an existing log file. 
  -[-]v [nnnnnn|mmddhhmm]       Attach file versioning information to the end 
                                of the log name. 
  -[-]rc <filename>             Run the command specified each time the log 
                                is closed. 
  -[-]max <value>               Maximum log file size in MB or number of 
                                records for SQL logs. 
  -[-]cnf [[[hh:]mm:]ss]        Create a new file when the specified time has 
                                elapsed or when the max size is exceeded. 
  -c <path [path ...]>          Performance counters to collect. 
  -cf <filename>                File listing performance counters to collect, 
                                one per line. 
  -si &lt;[[hh:]mm:]ss&gt;            Sample interval for performance counter 
                                collections. 
  -ln <logger_name>             Logger name for Event Trace Sessions. 
  -[-]rt                        Run the Event Trace Session in real-time 
                                mode. 
  -p <provider [flags [level]]> A single Event Trace provider to enable. 
  -pf <filename>                File listing multiple Event Trace providers 
                                to enable. 
  -[-]ul                        Run the Event Trace Session in user mode. 
  -bs <value>                   Event Trace Session buffer size in kb. 
  -ft &lt;[[hh:]mm:]ss&gt;            Event Trace Session flush timer. 
  -nb <min max>                 Number of Event Trace Session buffers. 
  -fd                           Flushes all the active buffers of an existing 
                                Event Trace Session to disk. 
  -[-]u [user [password]]       User to Run As. Entering a * for the password 
                                produces a prompt for the password. The 
                                password is not displayed when you type it at 
                                the password prompt. 
  -rf &lt;[[hh:]mm:]ss&gt;            Run the collection for specified period of 
                                time. 
  -y                            Answer yes to all questions without 
                                prompting. 
  -ets                          Send commands to Event Trace Sessions 
                                directly without saving or scheduling. 
  -mode <trace_mode [trace_mode ...]>   Event Trace Session logger mode. 

Note:
  Where [-] is listed, an extra - negates the option.
  For example --r turns off the -r option.

Examples:
  logman create counter perf_log -c &quot;\Processor(_Total)\% Processor Time&quot;
  logman create trace trace_log -nb 16 256 -bs 64 -o c:\logfile 
  logman start perf_log 
  logman update perf_log -si 10 -f csv -v mmddhhmm
  logman update trace_log -p &quot;Windows Kernel Trace&quot; (disk,net) 
 

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LPQ


Displays the state of a remote lpd queue.



Usage: lpq  -Sserver -Pprinter [-l]



Options:

     -S server    Name or ipaddress of the host providing lpd service

     -P printer   Name of the print queue

     -l           verbose output



 

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LPR


Sends a print job to a network printer



Usage: lpr -S server -P printer [-C class] [-J job] [-o option] [-x] [-d] filename



Options:

     -S server    Name or ipaddress of the host providing lpd service

     -P printer   Name of the print queue

     -C class     Job classification for use on the burst page

     -J job       Job name to print on the burst page

     -o option    Indicates type of the file (by default assumes a text file)

                  Use &quot;-o l&quot; for binary (e.g. postscript) files

     -x           Compatibility with SunOS 4.1.x and prior 

     -d           Send data file first

 

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MAKECAB

Microsoft (R) Cabinet Maker - Version 5.1.2600.2180
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved..

MAKECAB [/V[n]] [/D var=value ...] [/L dir] source [destination]
MAKECAB [/V[n]] [/D var=value ...] /F directive_file [...]

  source         File to compress.
  destination    File name to give compressed file.  If omitted, the
                 last character of the source file name is replaced
                 with an underscore (_) and used as the destination.
  /F directives  A file with MakeCAB directives (may be repeated).
  /D var=value   Defines variable with specified value.
  /L dir         Location to place destination (default is current directory).
  /V[n]          Verbosity level (1..3).
 

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MEM

Displays the amount of used and free memory in your system.

MEM [/PROGRAM | /DEBUG | /CLASSIFY]

  /PROGRAM or /P   Displays status of programs currently loaded in memory.
  /DEBUG or /D     Displays status of programs, internal drivers, and other
                   information.
  /CLASSIFY or /C  Classifies programs by memory usage. Lists the size of
                   programs, provides a summary of memory in use, and lists
                   largest memory block available.
 

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MOUNTVOL

Creates, deletes, or lists a volume mount point.

MOUNTVOL [drive:]path VolumeName
MOUNTVOL [drive:]path /D
MOUNTVOL [drive:]path /L

    path        Specifies the existing NTFS directory where the mount
                point will reside.
    VolumeName  Specifies the volume name that is the target of the mount
                point.
    /D          Removes the volume mount point from the specified directory.
    /L          Lists the mounted volume name for the specified directory.

Possible values for VolumeName along with current mount points are:

    \\?\Volume{967a6a94-2986-11da-a2da-806d6172696f}\
        D:\

    \\?\Volume{967a6a95-2986-11da-a2da-806d6172696f}\
        C:\

    \\?\Volume{fa2dc23e-b372-11dc-aa41-806d6172696f}\
        E:\

 

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MRINFO


Usage: mrinfo [-n?] [-i address] [-t secs] [-r retries] destination

       

 -n           Display IP addresses in numeric format

 -i address   Address of local interface to send query out

 -t seconds   Timeout in seconds for IGMP queries (default = 3 seconds) 

 -r retries   Number of extra times to send the SNMP queries (default = 0)         

 -?           Print Usage

 destination  Address or name of destination



 

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MSG

Send a message to a user.

MSG {username | sessionname | sessionid | @filename | *}
    [/SERVER:servername] [/TIME:seconds] [/V] [/W] [message]

  username            Identifies the specified username.
  sessionname         The name of the session.
  sessionid           The ID of the session.
  @filename           Identifies a file containing a list of usernames,
                      sessionnames, and sessionids to send the message to.
  *                   Send message to all sessions on specified server.
  /SERVER:servername  server to contact (default is current).
  /TIME:seconds       Time delay to wait for receiver to acknowledge msg.
  /V                  Display information about actions being performed.
  /W                  Wait for response from user, useful with /V.
  message             Message to send.  If none specified, prompts for it
                      or reads from stdin.

 

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NBTSTAT


Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT

(NetBIOS over TCP/IP).



NBTSTAT [ [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n]

        [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ]



  -a   (adapter status) Lists the remote machine&#39;s name table given its name

  -A   (Adapter status) Lists the remote machine&#39;s name table given its

                        IP address.

  -c   (cache)          Lists NBT&#39;s cache of remote [machine] names and their IP addresses

  -n   (names)          Lists local NetBIOS names.

  -r   (resolved)       Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS

  -R   (Reload)         Purges and reloads the remote cache name table

  -S   (Sessions)       Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses

  -s   (sessions)       Lists sessions table converting destination IP

                        addresses to computer NETBIOS names.

  -RR  (ReleaseRefresh) Sends Name Release packets to WINS and then, starts Refresh



  RemoteName   Remote host machine name.

  IP address   Dotted decimal representation of the IP address.

  interval     Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds

               between each display. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying

               statistics.



 

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NET

The syntax of this command is:


NET [ ACCOUNTS | COMPUTER | CONFIG | CONTINUE | FILE | GROUP | HELP |
      HELPMSG | LOCALGROUP | NAME | PAUSE | PRINT | SEND | SESSION |
      SHARE | START | STATISTICS | STOP | TIME | USE | USER | VIEW ]

 

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NET1

The syntax of this command is:


NET [ ACCOUNTS | COMPUTER | CONFIG | CONTINUE | FILE | GROUP | HELP |
      HELPMSG | LOCALGROUP | NAME | PAUSE | PRINT | SEND | SESSION |
      SHARE | START | STATISTICS | STOP | TIME | USE | USER | VIEW ]

 

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NETSH

The following helper DLL cannot be loaded: DHCP.DLL.

Usage: NETSH [-a AliasFile] [-c Context] [-r RemoteMachine] 
             [Command | -f ScriptFile]

The following commands are available:

Commands in this context:
?              - Displays a list of commands.
add            - Adds a configuration entry to a list of entries.
bridge         - Changes to the `netsh bridge&#39; context.
delete         - Deletes a configuration entry from a list of entries.
diag           - Changes to the `netsh diag&#39; context.
dump           - Displays a configuration script.
exec           - Runs a script file.
firewall       - Changes to the `netsh firewall&#39; context.
help           - Displays a list of commands.
interface      - Changes to the `netsh interface&#39; context.
ras            - Changes to the `netsh ras&#39; context.
routing        - Changes to the `netsh routing&#39; context.
set            - Updates configuration settings.
show           - Displays information.
winsock        - Changes to the `netsh winsock&#39; context.

The following sub-contexts are available:
 bridge diag firewall interface ras routing winsock

To view help for a command, type the command, followed by a space, and then
 type ?.
 

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NETSTAT

Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.

NETSTAT [-a] [-b] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p proto] [-r] [-s] [-v] [interval]

  -a            Displays all connections and listening ports.
  -b            Displays the executable involved in creating each connection or
                listening port. In some cases well-known executables host
                multiple independent components, and in these cases the
                sequence of components involved in creating the connection
                or listening port is displayed. In this case the executable
                name is in [] at the bottom, on top is the component it called,
                and so forth until TCP/IP was reached. Note that this option
                can be time-consuming and will fail unless you have sufficient
                permissions.
  -e            Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s
                option.
  -n            Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.
  -o            Displays the owning process ID associated with each connection.
  -p proto      Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto
                may be any of: TCP, UDP, TCPv6, or UDPv6.  If used with the -s
                option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be any of:
                IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP, or UDPv6.
  -r            Displays the routing table.
  -s            Displays per-protocol statistics.  By default, statistics are
                shown for IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP, and UDPv6;
                the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default.
  -v            When used in conjunction with -b, will display sequence of
                components involved in creating the connection or listening
                port for all executables.
  interval      Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds
                between each display.  Press CTRL+C to stop redisplaying
                statistics.  If omitted, netstat will print the current
                configuration information once. 
 

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NLSFUNC

Loads country-specific information.

NLSFUNC [[drive:][path]filename]

  [drive:][path]filename   Specifies the file containing country-specific
                           information.
 

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NSLOOKUP

Non-authoritative answer:

Server:  FBI
Address:  192.168.1.1

Name:    /?
Address:  24.28.193.9

 

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PATHPING


Usage: pathping [-g host-list] [-h maximum_hops] [-i address] [-n] 

                [-p period] [-q num_queries] [-w timeout] [-P] [-R] [-T] 

                [-4] [-6] target_name



Options:

    -g host-list     Loose source route along host-list.

    -h maximum_hops  Maximum number of hops to search for target.

    -i address       Use the specified source address. 

    -n               Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.

    -p period        Wait period milliseconds between pings.

    -q num_queries   Number of queries per hop.

    -w timeout       Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.

    -P               Test for RSVP PATH connectivity.

    -R               Test if each hop is RSVP aware.

    -T               Test connectivity to each hop with Layer-2 priority tags.

    -4               Force using IPv4.

    -6               Force using IPv6.

 

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PENTNT

Reports on whether local computer exhibits Intel(tm) Pentium

Floating Point Division Error



pentnt [-?] [-H] [-h] [-C] [-c] [-F] [-f] [-O] [-o]



        Run without arguments this program will tell you if the

        system exhibits the Pentium floating point division error

        and whether floating point emulation is forced and whether floating

        point hardware is disabled.



    -?  Print this help message

    -h

    -H



    -c  Turn on conditional emulation. This means that floating

    -C  point emulation will be forced on if and only if

        the system detects the Pentium floating point division

        error at boot. Reboot required before this takes effect.

        This is what should generally be used.



    -f  Turn on forced emulation.  This means that floating

    -F  point hardware is disabled and floating point emulation

        will always be forced on, regardless of whether the system

        exhibits the Pentium division error. Useful for testing

        software emulators and for working around floating point

        hardware defects unknown to the OS. Reboot required before

        this takes effect.



    -o  Turn off forced emulation. Reenables floating point hardware

    -O  if present. Reboot required before this takes effect.



The Floating Point Division error that this program addresses only

occurs on certain Intel Pentium processors. It only affects floating

point operations. The problem is described in detail in a white paper

available from Intel. If you are doing critical work with programs that

perform floating point division and certain related functions that

use the same hardware (including remainder and transcendtal functions),

you may wish to use this program to force emulation.



Type &quot;pentnt -? | more&quot; if you need to see all the help text

 

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PING


Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS]

            [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]]

            [-w timeout] target_name



Options:

    -t             Ping the specified host until stopped.

                   To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break;

                   To stop - type Control-C.

    -a             Resolve addresses to hostnames.

    -n count       Number of echo requests to send.

    -l size        Send buffer size.

    -f             Set Don&#39;t Fragment flag in packet.

    -i TTL         Time To Live.

    -v TOS         Type Of Service.

    -r count       Record route for count hops.

    -s count       Timestamp for count hops.

    -j host-list   Loose source route along host-list.

    -k host-list   Strict source route along host-list.

    -w timeout     Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.



 

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PING6


Usage: ping6 [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-w timeout] [-s srcaddr] [-r] dest



Options:

-t             Ping the specifed host until interrupted.

-a             Resolve addresses to hostnames.

-n count       Number of echo requests to send.

-l size        Send buffer size.

-w timeout     Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

-s srcaddr     Source address to use.

-r             Use routing header to test reverse route also.

 

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POWERCFG

POWERCFG [/LIST | /QUERY [name] | /CREATE name | /DELETE name |
       /SETACTIVE name | /CHANGE name settings |
       /HIBERNATE {ON|OFF} | /EXPORT name [/FILE filename] |
       /IMPORT name [/FILE filename] | /GLOBALPOWERFLAG {ON|OFF} /OPTION flag |
       /BATTERYALARM {LOW|CRITICAL} [settings] |
       /DEVICEQUERY queryflags | /DEVICEENABLEWAKE devicename |
       /DEVICEDISABLEWAKE devicename | /?]

Description:
    This command line tool enables an administrator to control
    the power settings on a system.

Parameter List:
    /LIST, /L       Lists the names of existing power schemes.
    /QUERY, /Q      Displays the configuration of the specified power scheme.
                    If no name is specified, the configuration of the currently
                    active power scheme is displayed.
    /CREATE, /C     Creates a power scheme with the specified name.  The new
                    scheme is created with the properties of the currently
                    active scheme.
    /DELETE, /D     Deletes the power scheme with the specified name.
    /SETACTIVE, /S  Makes the power scheme with the specified name active.
    /CHANGE, /X     Changes settings of the specified power scheme. Additional
                    switches specify the changes as follows:
                        /monitor-timeout-ac <minutes>
/monitor-timeout-dc <minutes>
/disk-timeout-ac <minutes>
/disk-timeout-dc <minutes>
/standby-timeout-ac <minutes>
/standby-timeout-dc <minutes>
/hibernate-timeout-ac <minutes>
/hibernate-timeout-dc <minutes>
/processor-throttle-ac <throttle>
/processor-throttle-dc <throttle>
AC settings are used when the system is on AC power.
                    DC settings are used when the system is on battery power.
                    Setting a timeout to zero will disable the corresponding
                    timeout feature.  Supported throttle settings are NONE
                    CONSTANT, DEGRADE, and ADAPTIVE.
    /EXPORT, /E     Exports the power scheme with the specified name to a
                    file.  If no filename is specified, the default is 
                    SCHEME.POW.  This additional parameter is supported:
                        /FILE <filename>
/IMPORT, /I     Imports the power scheme from a file under the specified
                    name.  If no filename is specified, the default is
                    SCHEME.POW.  If a scheme with that name already exists, it
                    is replaced with the new one.  This additional parameter
                    is supported:
                        /FILE <filename>
/HIBERNATE, /H {ON|OFF}  Enables/Disables the hibernate feature.  Hibernate
                    timeout is not supported on all systems.
    /NUMERICAL, /N  Allows the power scheme to be operated upon to be specified
                    using a numerical identifier.  When using this switch, in
                    place of the name of the power scheme on the command line,
                    specify its numerical identifier.  This switch may be used
                    in combination with the /QUERY, /DELETE, /SETACTIVE,
                    /CHANGE, /EXPORT, and /IMPORT commands.
    /GLOBALPOWERFLAG, /G {ON|OFF}  Turns one of the global power flags on/off.
                    Valid flags (to be used after &quot;/OPTION &quot;) are:
                         BATTERYICON:    Turns the battery meter icon in the
                                         system tray on/off.
                         MULTIBATTERY:   Turns on/off multiple battery display
                                         in system Power Meter.
                         RESUMEPASSWORD: Prompt for password on resuming the
                                         system.
                         WAKEONRING:     Turn on/off wake on ring support.
                         VIDEODIM:       Turn on/off support for dimming video
                                         display on battery power.
    /AVAILABLESLEEPSTATES, /A  Reports the sleep states available on the
                    system.  Attempts to report reasons why sleep states are
                    unavailable.
    /BATTERYALARM, /B {LOW|CRITICAL}  Configures the battery alarm.  The
                    following switches can be specified:
                        /activate <on|off>
Enables or disables the alarm.
                        /level <percentage (0 - 100)>
The alarm will be activated when the power level
                            reaches this percentage.
                        /text <on|off>
Turns the text notification on or off.
                        /sound <on|off>
Turns the audible notification on or off.
                        /action <none|shutdown|hibernate|standby>
Specifies the action to take when this alarm goes
                            off.  Not all actions are always available.
                        /forceaction <on|off>
Force stand by or shutdown even if a program stops
                            responding.
                        /program <on|off>
Specifies a program to run.  schtasks.exe /change
                           may be used to configure the program.
    /DEVICEQUERY <queryflags> will return a list of devices that meet the
                    criteria specified in <queryflags>.  Possible values
                    for <queryflags> are:
                    wake_from_S1_supported - return all devices that support
                             waking the system from a light sleep state.
                    wake_from_S2_supported - return all devices that support
                             waking the system from a deeper sleep state.
                    wake_from_S3_supported - return all devices that support
                             waking from the deepest sleep state.
                    wake_from_any - return all devices that support waking
                             from any sleep state.
                    S1_supported - list devices supporting light sleep states.
                    S2_supported - list devices supporting deeper sleep.
                    S3_supported - list devices supporting deepest sleep.
                    S4_supported - list devices supporting system hibernation.
                    wake_programmable - list devices that are user-configurable
                             to wake the system from a sleep state.
                    wake_armed - list devices that are currently configured to
                             wake the system from any sleep state.
                    all_devices - return all devices present in the system.
                    all_devices_verbose - return verbose list of devices.
    /DEVICEENABLEWAKE <devicename> enable the device to wake the system from a
                    sleep state. <devicename> is a device retrieved using
                    the &#39;/DEVICEQUERY wake_programmable&#39; parameter.
    /DEVICEDISABLEWAKE <devicename> disable the device from waking the system
                    from a sleep state. <devicename> is a device retrieved
                    using the &#39;/DEVICEQUERY wake_armed&#39; parameter.
    /HELP, /?       Displays information on command-line parameters.

Examples:
    POWERCFG /LIST
    POWERCFG /QUERY scheme
    POWERCFG /QUERY
    POWERCFG /CREATE scheme
    POWERCFG /DELETE scheme
    POWERCFG /SETACTIVE scheme
    POWERCFG /CHANGE scheme /monitor-timeout-dc 15
    POWERCFG /CHANGE scheme /monitor-timeout-dc 0
    POWERCFG /HIBERNATE on
    POWERCFG /EXPORT scheme /file file
    POWERCFG /QUERY number /NUMERICAL
    POWERCFG /GLOBALPOWERFLAG on /OPTION BATTERYICON
    POWERCFG /AVAILABLESLEEPSTATES
    POWERCFG /BATTERYALARM low
    POWERCFG /BATTERYALARM critical /ACTIVATE on /LEVEL 6 /ACTION hibernate
    POWERCFG /DEVICEQUERY wake_armed
    POWERCFG /DEVICEENABLEWAKE &quot;Microsoft USB IntelliMouse Explorer&quot;

 

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PROXYCFG

Microsoft (R) WinHTTP Default Proxy Configuration Tool
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

usage:

    proxycfg -?  : to view help information
    
    proxycfg     : to view current WinHTTP proxy settings
    
    proxycfg [-d] [-p <server-name> [<bypass-list>]]
    
        -d : set direct access       
        -p : set proxy server(s), and optional bypass list
        
    proxycfg -u  : import proxy settings from current user&#39;s 
                   Microsoft Internet Explorer manual settings (in HKCU)
 

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QAPPSRV

Displays the available application terminal servers on the network.

QUERY TERMSERVER [servername] [/DOMAIN:domain] [/ADDRESS] [/CONTINUE]

  servername      Identifies a Terminal server.
  /DOMAIN:domain  Displays information for the specified domain (defaults 
                  to the current domain).
  /ADDRESS        Displays network and node addresses.
  /CONTINUE       Does not pause after each screen of information.

 

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QPROCESS

Displays information about processes.

QUERY PROCESS [* | processid | username | sessionname | /ID:nn | programname]
  [/SERVER:servername] [/SYSTEM]

  *                  Display all visible processes.
  processid          Display process specified by processid.
  username           Display all processes belonging to username.
  sessionname        Display all processes running at sessionname.
  /ID:nn             Display all processes running at session nn.
  programname        Display all processes associated with programname.
  /SERVER:servername The Terminal server to be queried.
  /SYSTEM            Displays process information for system processes.
 

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QWINSTA

Display information about Terminal Sessions.

QUERY SESSION [sessionname | username | sessionid]
              [/SERVER:servername] [/MODE] [/FLOW] [/CONNECT] [/COUNTER]

  sessionname         Identifies the session named sessionname.
  username            Identifies the session with user username.
  sessionid           Identifies the session with ID sessionid.
  /SERVER:servername  The server to be queried (default is current).
  /MODE               Display current line settings.
  /FLOW               Display current flow control settings.
  /CONNECT            Display current connect settings.
  /COUNTER            Display current Terminal Services counters information.

 

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RASAUTOU

Usage: rasautou [-f phonebook] [-d dll -p proc] [-a address] [-e entry] [-s]
 

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RASDIAL

USAGE:
	RASDIAL entryname [username [password|*]] [/DOMAIN:domain]
		[/PHONE:phonenumber] [/CALLBACK:callbacknumber]
		[/PHONEBOOK:phonebookfile] [/PREFIXSUFFIX]

	RASDIAL [entryname] /DISCONNECT

	RASDIAL

Command completed successfully.
 

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RCP


Copies files to and from computer running the RCP service.



RCP [-a | -b] [-h] [-r] [host][.user:]source [host][.user:] path\destination



  -a                 Specifies ASCII transfer mode. This mode converts

                     the EOL characters to a carriage return for UNIX

                     and a carriage

                     return/line feed for personal computers. This is

                     the default transfer mode.

  -b                 Specifies binary image transfer mode.

  -h                 Transfers hidden files.

  -r                 Copies the contents of all subdirectories;

                     destination must be a directory.

  host               Specifies the local or remote host. If host is

                     specified as an IP address OR if host name contains

                     dots, you must specify the user.

  .user:             Specifies a user name to use, rather than the

                     current user name.

  source             Specifes the files to copy.

  path\destination   Specifies the path relative to the logon directory

                     on the remote host. Use the escape characters

                     (\ , &quot;, or &#39;) in remote paths to use wildcard

                     characters on the remote host.



 

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REG

Console Registry Tool for Windows - version 3.0
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp. 1981-2001.  All rights reserved


REG Operation [Parameter List]

  Operation  [ QUERY   | ADD    | DELETE  | COPY    |
               SAVE    | LOAD   | UNLOAD  | RESTORE |
               COMPARE | EXPORT | IMPORT ]

Return Code: (Except of REG COMPARE)

  0 - Succussful
  1 - Failed

For help on a specific operation type:

  REG Operation /?

Examples:

  REG QUERY /?
  REG ADD /?
  REG DELETE /?
  REG COPY /?
  REG SAVE /?
  REG RESTORE /?
  REG LOAD /?
  REG UNLOAD /?
  REG COMPARE /?
  REG EXPORT /?
  REG IMPORT /?
 

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REXEC


Runs commands on remote hosts running the REXEC service. Rexec 

authenticates the user name on the remote host before executing the 

specified command.



REXEC host [-l username] [-n] command



  host            Specifies the remote host on which to run command.

  -l username     Specifies the user name on the remote host.

  -n              Redirects the input of REXEC to NULL.

  command         Specifies the command to run.



 

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ROUTE

Manipulates network routing tables.

ROUTE [-f] [-p] [command [destination]
                  [MASK netmask]  [gateway] [METRIC metric]  [IF interface]

  -f           Clears the routing tables of all gateway entries.  If this is
               used in conjunction with one of the commands, the tables are
               cleared prior to running the command.
  -p           When used with the ADD command, makes a route persistent across
               boots of the system. By default, routes are not preserved
               when the system is restarted. Ignored for all other commands, 
               which always affect the appropriate persistent routes. This 
               option is not supported in Windows 95.
  command      One of these:
                 PRINT     Prints  a route
                 ADD       Adds    a route
                 DELETE    Deletes a route
                 CHANGE    Modifies an existing route	
  destination  Specifies the host.
  MASK         Specifies that the next parameter is the &#39;netmask&#39; value.
  netmask      Specifies a subnet mask value for this route entry.
               If not specified, it defaults to 255.255.255.255.
  gateway      Specifies gateway.
  interface    the interface number for the specified route.
  METRIC       specifies the metric, ie. cost for the destination.

All symbolic names used for destination are looked up in the network database
file NETWORKS. The symbolic names for gateway are looked up in the host name
database file HOSTS.

If the command is PRINT or DELETE. Destination or gateway can be a wildcard,
(wildcard is specified as a star &#39;*&#39;), or the gateway argument may be omitted.

If Dest contains a * or ?, it is treated as a shell pattern, and only
matching destination routes are printed. The &#39;*&#39; matches any string,
and &#39;?&#39; matches any one char. Examples: 157.*.1, 157.*, 127.*, *224*.
Diagnostic Notes:
    Invalid MASK generates an error, that is when (DEST &amp; MASK) != DEST.
    Example&gt; route ADD 157.0.0.0 MASK 155.0.0.0 157.55.80.1 IF 1
             The route addition failed: The specified mask parameter is invalid. (Destination &amp; Mask) != Destination.

Examples:

    &gt; route PRINT
    &gt; route ADD 157.0.0.0 MASK 255.0.0.0  157.55.80.1 METRIC 3 IF 2
             destination^      ^mask      ^gateway     metric^    ^
                                                         Interface^
      If IF is not given, it tries to find the best interface for a given 
      gateway.
    &gt; route PRINT
    &gt; route PRINT 157*          .... Only prints those matching 157*
    &gt; route CHANGE 157.0.0.0 MASK 255.0.0.0 157.55.80.5 METRIC 2 IF 2
    
      CHANGE is used to modify gateway and/or metric only.
    &gt; route PRINT
    &gt; route DELETE 157.0.0.0
    &gt; route PRINT
 

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RSH


Runs commands on remote hosts running the RSH service. 



RSH host [-l username] [-n] command



  host            Specifies the remote host on which to run command.

  -l username     Specifies the user name to use on the remote host. If 

                  omitted, the logged on user name is used.

  -n              Redirects the input of RSH to NULL.

  command         Specifies the command to run.



 

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RSM

RSM [ALLOCATE | DEALLOCATE |  MOUNT | DISMOUNT | EJECT | EJECTATAPI | 
      CREATEPOOL | DELETEPOOL | VIEW | REFRESH | INVENTORY]

The command line is case insensitive, except when you refer to Media 
Objects (including media, drives, changers, libraries, media types, slots) 
by their friendly names.
The arguments for a command may be specified in any order.
All commands return an error code - success, a system defined error 
code or one of the application defined error codes shown below:
		536870913: Invalid Arguments
		536870914: Duplicate Arguments
		536870915: No Guid For Friendly Name 
		536870916: Insufficient Arguments 
		536870917: Invalid Guid
		536870918: Ioctl Failed
There should be no spaces between a tag and the actual argument. For 
example, for the timeout option in allocate, the timeout is specified 
as /t50 and not /t 50.
See Start-&gt;Help (search for &quot;Using the command line for Removable 
Storage&quot;) for more details.
 

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RUNAS

 

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RWINSTA

Reset the session subsytem hardware and software to known initial values.

RESET SESSION {sessionname | sessionid} [/SERVER:servername] [/V]

  sessionname         Identifies the session with name sessionname.
  sessionid           Identifies the session with ID sessionid.
  /SERVER:servername  The server containing the session (default is current).
  /V                  Display additional information.

 

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SC

DESCRIPTION:
	SC is a command line program used for communicating with the 
	NT Service Controller and services.
USAGE:
	sc <server> [command] [service name] <option1> <option2>...

	The option <server> has the form &quot;\\ServerName&quot;
	Further help on commands can be obtained by typing: &quot;sc [command]&quot;
	Commands:
	  query-----------Queries the status for a service, or 
	                  enumerates the status for types of services.
	  queryex---------Queries the extended status for a service, or 
	                  enumerates the status for types of services.
	  start-----------Starts a service.
	  pause-----------Sends a PAUSE control request to a service.
	  interrogate-----Sends an INTERROGATE control request to a service.
	  continue--------Sends a CONTINUE control request to a service.
	  stop------------Sends a STOP request to a service.
	  config----------Changes the configuration of a service (persistant).
	  description-----Changes the description of a service.
	  failure---------Changes the actions taken by a service upon failure.
	  qc--------------Queries the configuration information for a service.
	  qdescription----Queries the description for a service.
	  qfailure--------Queries the actions taken by a service upon failure.
	  delete----------Deletes a service (from the registry).
	  create----------Creates a service. (adds it to the registry).
	  control---------Sends a control to a service.
	  sdshow----------Displays a service&#39;s security descriptor.
	  sdset-----------Sets a service&#39;s security descriptor.
	  GetDisplayName--Gets the DisplayName for a service.
	  GetKeyName------Gets the ServiceKeyName for a service.
	  EnumDepend------Enumerates Service Dependencies.

	The following commands don&#39;t require a service name:
	sc <server> <command> <option> 
boot------------(ok | bad) Indicates whether the last boot should
	                  be saved as the last-known-good boot configuration
	  Lock------------Locks the Service Database
	  QueryLock-------Queries the LockStatus for the SCManager Database
EXAMPLE:
	sc start MyService

Would you like to see help for the QUERY and QUERYEX commands? [ y | n ]: 
QUERY and QUERYEX OPTIONS : 
	If the query command is followed by a service name, the status
	for that service is returned.  Further options do not apply in
	this case.  If the query command is followed by nothing or one of
	the options listed below, the services are enumerated.
    type=    Type of services to enumerate (driver, service, all)
             (default = service)
    state=   State of services to enumerate (inactive, all)
             (default = active)
    bufsize= The size (in bytes) of the enumeration buffer
             (default = 4096)
    ri=      The resume index number at which to begin the enumeration
             (default = 0)
    group=   Service group to enumerate
             (default = all groups)
SYNTAX EXAMPLES
sc query                - Enumerates status for active services &amp; drivers
sc query messenger      - Displays status for the messenger service
sc queryex messenger    - Displays extended status for the messenger service
sc query type= driver   - Enumerates only active drivers
sc query type= service  - Enumerates only Win32 services
sc query state= all     - Enumerates all services &amp; drivers
sc query bufsize= 50    - Enumerates with a 50 byte buffer.
sc query ri= 14         - Enumerates with resume index = 14
sc queryex group= &quot;&quot;    - Enumerates active services not in a group
sc query type= service type= interact - Enumerates all interactive services
sc query type= driver group= NDIS     - Enumerates all NDIS drivers

 

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SETVER

Sets the version number that MS-DOS reports to a program.

Display current version table:  SETVER [drive:path]
Add entry:                      SETVER [drive:path] filename n.nn
Delete entry:                   SETVER [drive:path] filename /DELETE [/QUIET]

  [drive:path]    Specifies location of the SETVER.EXE file.
  filename        Specifies the filename of the program.
  n.nn            Specifies the MS-DOS version to be reported to the program.
  /DELETE or /D   Deletes the version-table entry for the specified program.
  /QUIET          Hides the message typically displayed during deletion of
                  version-table entry.
 

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SHADOW

Monitor another Terminal Services session.

SHADOW {sessionname | sessionid} [/SERVER:servername] [/V]

  sessionname         Identifies the session with name sessionname.
  sessionid           Identifies the session with ID sessionid.
  /SERVER:servername  The server containing the session (default is current).
  /V                  Display information about actions being performed.

 

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SHUTDOWN

Usage: SHUTDOWN [-i | -l | -s | -r | -a] [-f]
 [-m \\computername] [-t xx] [-c &quot;comment&quot;] [-d up:xx:yy]

	No args			Display this message (same as -?)
	-i			Display GUI interface, must be the first option
	-l			Log off (cannot be used with -m option)
	-s			Shutdown the computer
	-r			Shutdown and restart the computer
	-a			Abort a system shutdown
	-m \\computername	Remote computer to shutdown/restart/abort
	-t xx			Set timeout for shutdown to xx seconds
	-c &quot;comment&quot;		Shutdown comment (maximum of 127 characters)
	-f			Forces running applications to close without warning
	-d [u][p]:xx:yy		The reason code for the shutdown
				u is the user code
				p is a planned shutdown code
				xx is the major reason code (positive integer less than 256)
				yy is the minor reason code (positive integer less than 65536)
 

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SMBINST

SMBINST [-uninstall] INF: Uninstalls the MSSMBios Driver
 

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TELNET

 

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TFTP


Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service.



TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination]



  -i              Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called

                  octet). In binary image mode the file is moved

                  literally, byte by byte. Use this mode when

                  transferring binary files.

  host            Specifies the local or remote host.

  GET             Transfers the file destination on the remote host to

                  the file source on the local host.

  PUT             Transfers the file source on the local host to

                  the file destination on the remote host.

  source          Specifies the file to transfer.

  destination     Specifies where to transfer the file.



 

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TRACERT


Usage: tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] target_name



Options:

    -d                 Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.

    -h maximum_hops    Maximum number of hops to search for target.

    -j host-list       Loose source route along host-list.

    -w timeout         Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.

 

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TRACERT6


Usage: tracert6 [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-w timeout] [-s srcaddr] target_name



Options:

-d             Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.

-h max_hops    Maximum number of hops to search for target.

-w timeout     Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.

-s srcaddr     Source address to use.

-r             Use routing header to test reverse route also.

 

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TSCON

Attaches a user session to a terminal session.

TSCON {sessionid | sessionname} [/DEST:sessionname]
        [/PASSWORD:pw] [/V]

  sessionid          The ID of the session.
  sessionname        The name of the session.
  /DEST:sessionname  Connect the session to destination sessionname.
  /PASSWORD:pw       Password of user owning identified session.
  /V                 Displays information about the actions performed.

 

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TSDISCON

Disconnects a terminal session.

TSDISCON [sessionid | sessionname] [/SERVER:servername] [/V]

  sessionid           The ID of the session.
  sessionname         The name of the session.
  /SERVER:servername  Specifies the Terminal server (default is current).
  /V                  Displays information about the actions performed.

 

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TSKILL

Ends a process.

TSKILL processid | processname [/SERVER:servername] [/ID:sessionid | /A] [/V]

  processid           Process ID for the process to be terminated.
  processname         Process name to be terminated.
  /SERVER:servername  Server containing processID (default is current).
                         /ID or /A must be specified when using processname
                         and /SERVER
  /ID:sessionid       End process running under the specified session.
  /A                  End process running under ALL sessions.
  /V                  Display information about actions being performed.

 

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TSSHUTDN

Shut down a server in a controlled manner.

TSSHUTDN [wait_time] [/SERVER:servername] [/REBOOT] [/POWERDOWN]
         [/DELAY:logoffdelay] [/V]

  wait_time           Seconds to wait after user notification before
                      terminating all user sessions (default is 60).
  /SERVER:servername  The server to shut down (default is current).
  /REBOOT             Reboot the server after user sessions are terminated.
  /POWERDOWN          The server will prepare for powering off.
  /DELAY:logoffdelay  Seconds to wait after logging off all connected
                      sessions (default is 30).
  /V                  Display information about actions being performed.

 

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TZCHANGE

A command Line utility to make timezone changes 

tzchange.exe [/A string] [/C string] [/F string] [/V string] [/S 7 integers]
             [/E 7 integers] [/M string] [/N string] [/B integer] [/Z integer]
             [/B integer] [/R integer] [/D integer] [/T string] [/L string] [/U] 

/A   Add timezone option, followed by timezone name to add, max 120 characters 
/C   Switch timezone, followed by timezone name to switch, max 120 characters 
/F   Edit timezone, followed by timezone name to edit, max 120 characters 
/V   Verification timezone, followed by timezone name, max 120 characters 
/M   Delete Timezone, followed by timezone name to delete, max 120 characters 
/S   Daylight Start date, followed by 7 integer values specifying:
       1. Month    [0-12] 0 for no daylight settings, 1-12 for Jan -&gt; Dec 
       2. DayofWeek[0-6]  for Sunday[0] -&gt; Saturday[6] 
       3. Day      [0-5]  0 for no daylight settings, 1-5 for day of month
       4. Hour     [0-23] 
       5. Minutes  [0-59] 
       6. Seconds  [0-59] 
       7. Milliseconds [0-999] 
     The above 7 integers are interpreted strictly in the same order. 

/E   Daylight End\Standard start date, followed by 7 integer values like above
/N   New Display name, followed by the display name 
/B   Bias in minutes, followed by an integer value between -780 and 720
     This option also updates the time offset in Display Name.

/R   Standard Bias in minutes, followed by an integer value between -780 and 720
/D   Daylight bias in minutes, followed by an integer value between -780 and 720
/T   Standard Name, followed by the standard name string, max 32 characters
/L   Daylight Name, followed by the daylight name string, max 32 characters
/U   Undo option [should not be combined with by any other option]
/Z   Number of Undo operations, followed by integer [-1 and above],
     Where -1 will Undo all previous timezone operations. This switch
     is optional during Undo, a default of 1 is taken if not specified.

/I   Index, followed by an integer, used only during Add operation.The index 
     value should be between 3221225472[0xC0000000] and 4294967295[0xFFFFFFFF]

/?   Help 
 

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UNLODCTR


UNLODCTR
    Removes counter names and explain text for the specified extensible counter.

Usage:

     UNLODCTR [\\computername] driver

     computername is the name of the remote computer.
         Local machine is used if computername is not specified.

     driver is the name of the device driver which is to have its
         counter name definitions and explain text removed from the system&#39;s
         registry.


Note: any arguments with spaces in the names must be enclosed within
Double Quotation marks.
 

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VERIFIER

Driver Verifier Manager - version 5.1.2600.0

Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
 
verifier /standard /driver NAME [NAME ...]
verifier /standard /all
verifier [ /flags FLAGS ] /driver NAME [NAME ...]
verifier [ /flags FLAGS ] /all
verifier /querysettings
verifier /volatile /flags FLAGS
verifier /volatile /adddriver NAME [NAME ...]
verifier /volatile /removedriver NAME [NAME ...]
verifier /reset
verifier /query
verifier /log LOG_FILE_NAME [/interval SECONDS]
 
FLAGS must be a number in decimal or hex, combination of bits:
 
    bit 0 - special pool checking
    bit 1 - force irql checking
    bit 2 - low resources simulation
    bit 3 - pool tracking
    bit 4 - I/O verification
    bit 5 - deadlock detection
    bit 6 - enhanced I/O verification
    bit 7 - DMA verification
 
E.g. /flags 27 is equivalent with /flags 0x1B
 
The /volatile option can be used to change the verifier settings
dynamically without restarting the system. Any new settings will be lost
when the system is rebooted.
 

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VSSADMIN

vssadmin 1.0 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

Usage:

vssadmin list shadows [/set={shadow copy set guid}]
	Lists all shadow copies in the system, grouped by shadow copy set Id.

vssadmin list writers
	Lists all writers in the system

vssadmin list providers
	Lists all currently installed shadow copy providers

 

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W32TM

w32tm [/? | /register | /unregister ]
  ? - this help screen.
  register - register to run as a service and add default
    configuration to the registry.
  unregister - unregister service and remove all configuration
    information from the registry.

w32tm /monitor [/domain:<domain name>]
               [/computers:<name>[,<name>[,<name>...]]]
               [/threads:<num>]
  domain - specifies which domain to monitor. If no domain name
    is given, or neither the domain nor computers option is
    specified, the default domain is used. This option may be
    used more than once.
  computers - monitors the given list of computers. Computer
    names are separated by commas, with no spaces. If a name is
    prefixed with a &#39;*&#39;, it is treated as a PDC. This option
    may be used more than once.
  threads - how many computers to analyze simultaneously. The
    default value is 3. Allowed range is 1-50.

w32tm /ntte <NT time epoch>
Convert a NT system time, in (10^-7)s intervals from 0h 1-Jan 1601,
  into a readable format.

w32tm /ntpte <NTP time epoch>
Convert an NTP time, in (2^-32)s intervals from 0h 1-Jan 1900, into
  a readable format.

w32tm /resync [/computer:<computer>] [/nowait] [/rediscover] [/soft]
  Tell a computer that it should resynchronize its clock as soon
  as possible, throwing out all accumulated error statistics.
  computer:<computer> - computer that should resync. If not
    specified, the local computer will resync.
  nowait - do not wait for the resync to occur;
    return immediately. Otherwise, wait for the resync to
    complete before returning.
  rediscover - redetect the network configuration and rediscover
    network sources, then resynchronize.
  soft - resync utilizing existing error statistics. Not useful, 
    provided for compatibility.

w32tm /stripchart /computer:<target> [/period:<refresh>]
    [/dataonly] [/samples:<count>] 
  Display a strip chart of the offset between this computer and
  another computer.
  computer:<target> - the computer to measure the offset against.
  period:<refresh> - the time between samples, in seconds. The
    default is 2s
  dataonly - display only the data, no graphics.
  samples:<count> - collect <count> samples, then stop. If not
    specified, samples will be collected until Ctrl-C is pressed.

w32tm /config [/computer:<target>] [/update]
    [/manualpeerlist:<peers>] [/syncfromflags:<source>]
    [/LocalClockDispersion:<seconds>]
  computer:<target> - adjusts the configuration of <target>. If not
    specified, the default is the local computer.
  update - notifies the time service that the configuration has
    changed, causing the changes to take effect.
  manualpeerlist:<peers> - sets the manual peer list to <peers>,
    which is a space-delimited list of DNS and/or IP addresses.
    When specifying multiple peers, this switch must be enclosed in
    quotes.
  syncfromflags:<source> - sets what sources the NTP client should
    sync from. <source> should be a comma separated list of
    these keywords (not case sensitive):
      MANUAL - include peers from the manual peer list
      DOMHIER - sync from a DC in the domain hierarchy

w32tm /tz
  Display the current time zone settings.

w32tm /dumpreg [/subkey:<key>] [/computer:<target>]
  Display the values associated with a given registry key.
  The default key is HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time
    (the root key for the time service).
  subkey:<key> - displays the values associated with subkey <key> of the default key.
  computer:<target> - queries registry settings for computer <target>

 
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